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Lab 3 and 4: Integumentary and Muscular Systems

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Lab 3 and 4: Integumentary and Muscular Systems. Skeletal Muscle. origin - what muscle attaches to for leverage, usually larger and more stationary bone than insertion

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Presentation Transcript
slide3
Skeletal Muscle

origin - what muscle attaches to for leverage, usually larger and more stationary bone than insertion

insertion - what muscle attaches to for movement, usually a smaller bone than the origin and not stationary; the insertion is what the muscle acts upon and causes to move

action - this is the type of movement that occurs

slide4
Triceps Brachii – origin = proximal humerus, insertion = proximal ulna, action = elbow extention

Biceps Brachii – origin = lateral scapula, insertion= proximal radius, action = flexes forarm

slide5
Helpful hints for identification of skeletal muscles:

Relative to direction of muscle fibers:

rectus -fibers running parallel to the midline of the body or

longitudinal axis of a bone

transverse - fibers running at right angles or perpendicular to the midline or longitudinal axis of a bone

oblique - fibers running obliquely (slanted or at a diagonal) to the midline of the body or longitudinal axis of a bone

slide6
Relative to size:

maximus – largest

minimus – smallest

longus – long

brevis - short

slide7
Relative to the number of origins:

Biceps – 2

Triceps – 3

Quadriceps – 4

slide8
Relative to location of origin and insertion example:

sternohyoid- sterno refers to the origin, which is themanubriumof the sternum and hyoid refers to theinsertion, which is the hyoid bone.

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Relative to location of muscle example:

brachioradialis - brachio refers to arm and radialis refers to the radius. This muscle runs along the radius of the forearm

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Relative to shape of the muscle example:

deltoid - the muscle is triangular like the name implies

Rhomboid

slide11
Muscle Movements

Movements that occur in the saggital plane:

flexion/extension - waist (bend/extend)

plantarflexion/dorsiflexion - ankle (point/ bend)

Movements that occur in the frontal plane:

abduction/adduction - arm/hip (movement away from midline/movement toward midline)

inversion/eversion - foot (turn or roll foot in/ turn or roll foot out)

Movements that occur in the transverse plane:

rotation - neck

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pronation/supination - wrist (turn hand palm down/palm up

antagonist muscle groups - one muscle works against the other (ex: biceps brachii and

triceps brachii - when one muscle flexes the other extends)

elevation/depression - upward movement/ downward movement (shrugging your shoulders)

protraction/retraction - moving a part of the body away from the axis /opposite

action (you protract your jaw when you grasp your upper lip with your lower teeth)

tensor - makes more rigid

sphincter - closes hole

slide13
Abdominal Wall Muscles:
  • External obliques
  • Internal obliques
  • Transverse Abdominus
  • Rectus Abdominus "6-pack")
slide14
Rotator Cuff Muscles ("SITS")

** ALL rotator cuff muscles: origin=scapula, insertion=humerus

  • Supraspinatus
  • Infraspinatus
  • TeresMinor
  • Subscapularis
slide15
Quadriceps Femoris ("Quads")

** ALL quad muscles: insertion=tibialtuberosity via patellar ligament, action=knee extension

  • VastusLateralis
  • VastusMedialis
  • VastusIntermedius
  • Rectus Femoris
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Hamstrings
  • ** ALL hamstring muscles: origin=ischium (the ischialtuberosities you "sit on"), action=knee flexion
  • Biceps femoris
  • Semimembranosus
  • Semitendinosous
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