Exercise 3 mendelian genetics
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Exercise 3: Mendelian Genetics. Objectives (see page 27). Crosses Monohybrid Autosomal and Sex-Linked Dihybrid Autosomal Punnett Squares Scientific Method Chi-squared test Drosophila and Pea Genetics. When Meiosis goes afoul…. Karyotype: Trisomy 21. From Meiosis to Mendel.

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Objectives see page 27 l.jpg
Objectives (see page 27)

  • Crosses

    • Monohybrid Autosomal and Sex-Linked

    • Dihybrid Autosomal

    • Punnett Squares

  • Scientific Method

    • Chi-squared test

  • Drosophila and Pea Genetics




From meiosis to mendel l.jpg
From Meiosis to Mendel

  • Meiosis produces haploid (n) gametes

  • Only 1 chromosome of each type (homologue)

  • Mendelian genetics concerns the recombination of these chromosomes


Slide6 l.jpg
Allele: One of two or more molecular forms of a gene that code for different versions of the same trait

P

p


Genotype dictates phenotype l.jpg
Genotype dictates Phenotype code for different versions of the same trait

  • P=purple

    • dominant

  • p=white

    • recessive


Slide8 l.jpg
True Breeding Individuals: Genetic line always produces same type of progeny when crossed within the line

Homozygous

Homozygous


Gregor mendel 1822 1884 l.jpg
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) type of progeny when crossed within the line


Results l.jpg
Results type of progeny when crossed within the line

Cross F1


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How?? type of progeny when crossed within the line

Started with truebreeders

  • F1 Generation

    • All Heterozygous

  • F2 Generation

    • Determine probability of each genotype and Phenotype

    • Punnett square


F2 genotype and phenotype ratios l.jpg
F2 Genotype and Phenotype Ratios type of progeny when crossed within the line


Pedigrees l.jpg

ww type of progeny when crossed within the line

Ww

W?

ww

Ww

ww

Ww

Ww

ww

Ww

Ww

W?

W?

Pedigrees


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Dihybrid Cross and Independent Assortment type of progeny when crossed within the line


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Problems with Mendel’s Laws type of progeny when crossed within the line

  • Environmental influences


Problems cont l.jpg
Problems cont type of progeny when crossed within the line

  • Not all traits are independently assorted

  • Pleiotropy: 1 gene  Many traits

  • Epistasis: Many genes  1 trait


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Problems cont type of progeny when crossed within the line

  • Multiple Alleles

    • ABO

    • AB codominant


Problems cont19 l.jpg
Problems cont type of progeny when crossed within the line

  • Incomplete dominance


Sex linked traits l.jpg
Sex-linked Traits type of progeny when crossed within the line

  • Located on the X chromosome

    • Females XX, Males XY

  • Other chromosomes are AUTOSOMAL


Today s lab computer simulation l.jpg
Today’s Lab: Computer Simulation type of progeny when crossed within the line

  • Monohybrid crosses

    • Autosomal or Sex-linked

      • Use reciprocal cross

    • Dominant or recessive

  • Dihybrid crosses

    • Dominant or recessive

  • Test with Chi-square statistical test


Classical scientific method l.jpg

Describe Phenomenon type of progeny when crossed within the line

Formulate Falsifiable Hypotheses to Explain the Phenomenon

Design and Implement Tests of Hypotheses

Analyze Results (statistics)

Draw Conclusions and/or Modify Hypotheses

Classical Scientific Method


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