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  1. Bio Apps due today… • Take out your Biol Apps pages 73-74 • You will have 15min to work on them

  2. After Graffiti Review… • Write down one thing remember about the following topics • DNA Structure • DNA Replication • Protein Synthesis • Mendelian Genetics • Non-Mendelian Genetics • Genetic Disorders • Biotech

  3. Entry 44 11/14 PROS – Screen for serious genetic disorders like downs or cystic fibrosis or inherited medical conditions like diabetes, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer's disease; The Next generation would be free of these disorders or diseases DESIGNER BABIES - “a baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering, combined with in vitro fertilization to ensure the presence or absence of particular genes or characteristics” CONS - adoption of genetic engineering for cosmetic reasons, for genetic enhancements Designer babies would manipulate human DNA and change our gene pool. Is this ethical? Is this any different than Adolf Hitler on a quest to create a race of Aryan Blond, blue-eyed and tall people? Explain your viewpoint on this subject.

  4. Benchmark Login 1. Log on to computer using… Username: Password: cstest2013 2. Then log on to classcapes with your user and password 3. Test Code 2nd Block: 90F - S01 3rd Block: 00Q – A08 4th Block: C0K – Z02

  5. Entry 51 12/5 • What comes to mind when you hear the word EVOLUTION? • How do you think the life began (origin of life)? Evolution Primer: Isn’t evolution just a theory?

  6. Evolution the primers and questions to go with it.

  7. Origin of Life • Abiogenesis: idea that life came from nonliving material, also called spontaneous generation • Early Atmosphere • Consisted of gases like carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide • NO OXYGEN

  8. Oparin • Primordial Soup Hypothesis • Theorized inorganic molecules could become organic molecules due to early conditions of earth- carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen (NO OXYGEN)

  9. Miller and Urey: • Tested Oparin’s “primordial soup” hypothesis; created early earth conditions in lab setting and observed formation of organic molecules

  10. Biogenesis • Life must come from life • Life began from biogenesis and continues through reproduction

  11. Redi • Disproved ABIOGENESIS with his rotting meat experiment, proving maggots come from flies not the rotting meat

  12. Pastuer: disproved ABIOGENESIS at the microscopic level with his S-shaped flask experiment

  13. Evolution of Cells – Heterotroph Hypothesis • First Cell: prokaryotic and anaerobic due to lack of oxygen in atmosphere • Second cell: prokaryotic, photosynthetic (produced OXYGEN) • Third Cell: aerobic prokaryotic; atmosphere now filled with oxygen due to photosynthesizing prokaryotic cells

  14. Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells • Endosymbiont Theory • Explains the evolution of eukaryotic cells

  15. Endosymbiont Theory • Details • Photosynthetic and aerobic prokaryotes (bacteria) began to move into the anaerobic prokaryotes

  16. Endosymbiont Theory • Photosynthetic prokaryotes became chloroplasts • Aerobic prokaryotes became mitochondria • EVIDENCE chloroplasts and mitochondria are the only organelles with their own DNA! Photosynthetic prokaryote Aerobic Prokaryote becomes mitochondria becomes chloroplast


  18. Nova - Origins: How Life Began •

  19. Ticket out the door • Put the following steps in correct order ____ Eukaryotic cells ____ First organic molecules ____ aerobic prokaryotes ____ photosynthetic prokaryotes ____ anaerobic prokaryotes

  20. Entry 52 12/6 • Pick up assignment, glue, and scissors • You will organize the pictures in the chronological order, paste in journal • Title the entry Origin of Cells • KEEP JOURNAL OUT ON DESK THIS ENTRY HAS A SECOND PART

  21. Entry 52 12/6 • What conclusion did Darwin come to? • What obstacle did Darwin face?

  22. Theory of Evolution • Charles Darwin: Naturalist; credited with theory of evolution; sailed on the Beagle in 1831 • Natural Selection: process by which new species could develop (speciation)

  23. Natural Selection • Variation:members of the population are genetically different, and therefore have different phenotypes • Overproduction: more members of the population exist than the carrying capacity can support • Competition: favors the best suited phenotype at that particular time. • Survival of best adapted: success is measured by the ability to pass on genes in REPRODUCTION • Adaptations: inherited trait that helps organism survive in environment

  24. Adaptations: inherited trait that helps organism survive in environment • Structural: any physical form or part, such as beak shape for a bird, or mimicry • Mimicry- similarity of one species to another which protects one or both

  25. Adaptations • Behavioral: any genetically-controlled action; herding, growling • Physiological: any body process; oxygen binding of hemoglobin

  26. Evidence for Evolution: Fossils: • any evidence of life that once existed on earth (bones, footprints, etc); find patterns of evolution over time

  27. Fossil Cont. Relative Dating • Order of appearance in sedimentary rock Radioactive Dating • Use the natural decay of isotopes in organism

  28. Evidence for Evolution • Biochemical Similarities : comparing DNA, RNA or amino acid sequences in proteins • the more similar more closely related

  29. Evidence for Evolution • Anatomical Structures: Homologous: same structure different function

  30. Evidence for Evolution Analogous: same function, different structure Example: bird wing and butterfly wing

  31. Evidence for Evolution Vestigial: serve no purpose in organism, may be “left over” of previous ancestor. Ex – wisdom teeth, appendix

  32. Ticket out the Door Which two organisms are most closely related base on biochemical similarities The structures below are an example of Homologous, Analogous, or Vestigial Structures

  33. Natural Selection - Connecting Concepts • • Follow along by completing the handout

  34. Ticket out the door • Explain how the lab relates to natural selection. Make sure to site both environments (flowers and animals)

  35. Ticket out the Door • In the simulation which organisms had the greatest fitness? • How would this affect the population of the species? • How does the phenotype affect fitness? • Where is the variation coming from? • Could a species suddenly change their color to match their environment?

  36. Entry 54 5/8 • Pick up assignment and paste on LAB STATION 1 • COMPLETE using your NOTES • PASTE in journal • Find page 81 in Notes Evidence Graphic Organizer

  37. Entry 55 5/9 • Pick up assignment on LAB STATION 1 • We will complete the assignment together • Connecting Concepts – Natural Selection • Paste in journal •

  38. Entry 55 5/9 What similarities do they share? What are their differences? CONVERGENT EVOLUTION – develop same adaptations, to adapt to same environment but are not related

  39. Entry 55 cont. What similarities do they share? What are their differences? DIVERGENT T EVOLUTION – Become dissimilar to adapt to different environments; share a common ancestor

  40. Crushing Mouth Parts Jumping Legs Curly Antenna Double Set of Wings Wings 6 Legs Legs Segmented body

  41. Mechanisms for Evolution: • POPULATIONS evolve individuals do not. • Population is the smallest unit of evolution • Different versions of acquired traits are present in a population and can be selected thus changing the population

  42. Mechanisms for Evolution 2. Changes in Gene Pool: 1. Mutations: changes in the DNA of an organism if the change affects the phenotype

  43. Mechanisms for Evolution 2. Environmental changes: Types of natural selection • Disruptive – conditions are most favorable for BOTH of the two extremes of the phenotype • Stabilizing – conditions are most favorable for the average version of the phenotype • Directional – conditions are most favorable for ONE of the two extremes of the phenotype

  44. Disruptive Selection Before After Stabilizing Selection Before After Directional Selection Before After

  45. Mechanisms for Evolution 3. Speciation - development of a new species • Geographic Isolation – part of population becomes separated by distance, and evolves differently  leading to a new species

  46. Timeframe for Evolution • Timeframes: (Describe how quickly the new species may have formed based on the fossil record) • Gradualism – small changes occur constantly, until a new species is formed