Etruscans. Period 3. Etruscan History : The Origin. Etruscans were indigionious people from Asia Minor. The Etruscan civilization started to manifest itself in the regions of Cerveteri, Tarquinia, Vulci and Vetulonia in northern Italy.
the Etruscans at Cumae
city-states, until eventually they were defeated
by Roman power in the 3rd centruy BC
Etruscan cities flourished over most of Italy during the Roman Iron Age, marking the farthest extent of Etruscan civilization. They were gradually assimilated first by Italics in the south, then by Celts in the north and finally in Etruria itself by the growing Roman Republic. Some cities were founded by Etruscans in prehistoric times and bore entirely Etruscan names. Others were colonized by Etruscans who Etruscanized the name, usually Italic.
Many believe that the Etruscan language is closely related to Basque, Hebrew, and Turkish, but it has been concluded that the similarities are simply coincidental.The Entruscan Language
It is clear that the Entruscans were in close contact with the Greeks, because many words in the Entruscan language have greek connections.The Entruscan Language Cont.
The image above is one of the best ways to help translate the Entruscan language. The slate on the left is a block of Phoenician and the center and right are Entruscan
Very Similar to Roman gods.
Had different names
Zeus = Tin
Hera = Uni
Minerva = Menerva
Venus = Turan
Mars = Maris
Neptune = Nethuns
The Etruscans believed the gods spoke to them through nature.
-Patterns of Bird Flights
-Entrails of Animals
Regarded as symbols/warnings from gods.
Augurs read flights of birds
Haruspices studied the intestines of sheep
Consumed liver after examining it
Searched liver for divine dissaproval
- Most common were terra cotta models of body parts for which healing was sought.
Art was a significant part of Etruscan life, but it is important to remember that many, if not most, works of Etruscan art have been lost (There are records of at least 2000 Etruscan Bronzes that were melted down to produce bronze coins). Because of this, we lack an understanding of what their art, overall, really was. Most of the remains that we have found throughout modern history is funerary.
Enjoyed much more freedom than Greek women
Sat with men at banquets and were allowed to participate in public events
A symbol of their relatively high status is that people in the Etruscan period were identified with both their mother’s and their father’s name.
As the Greeks influenced the Etruscans more, women lost status and power
Rich families of noble descent
Rich merchants and land owners
Kings of each city-state
Farmers, potters, metal workers
-Most knowledge of Etruscan music comes from tomb paintings.
-Music was used in banquets, religious ceremonies and celebrations, and funerals.
-Music was also present in work and leisure activities.
-During funerals a flure and lyre would be played to lighten the atmosphere.
-The musicians wore colorful cloaks similar to those of modern day dancers in Ionian Greece.
-Music was often accompanied with dance.
of ancient Etruscan artifacts such as
Bucherroceramics and amphorae, is
currently taking place at several sites
in Italy such as Podere Tartuchino.
first excavation of an Etruscan farmhouse at Podere Tartuchino.
Predictive model of settlement in Albegna Valley in Tuscany, Italy
The lively Etruscan painted tombs of Tarquinia have incited travel writers to speculate on the lost culture for decades.
Etruscans would build, opposite their city, a necropolis--a city for the dead.
The Etruscan obsession with elaborate burials leads us to suppose that they may have had an underlying belief, similar to the Egyptians that a part of the soul remained with the body,sdfs or at least that the body was important for the afterlife.