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  1. Adolescence

  2. whakapapa

  3. I Io-Matua-kore:- Io the Parent, who was Always Existent without beginning or end. Io-Taketake:- lo the Root Foundation of all things.Io-Wananga:- lo the Source of all Wisdom.Il. Then Io-Taketake begatTe Korekore - a double negative, the Absolute NothingnessTe Korekore Te Rawea – the Absolute Nothingness which could Not be Wrapped up.Te Korekore Te Whiwhia - the Absolute Nothingness which could not be Bound.Te Korekore Te Tamaua - tie Absolute Nothingness which could not be Fastened.Te Kowhao - the Abyss.Te Poo - the Night.

  4. including whakapapa

  5. Developmental Tasks

  6. Domains of Development • Physical Biological theories • Cognitive Piaget • Socio/Emotional Erikson • Moral Kohlberg • Perspectival Selman • Personality Erikson

  7. Age: 10-19 1/5 of world population 50% under 25 Adolescents :

  8. Age: 10-19 1/5 of world population 50% under 25 Adolescents :

  9. Biological Development Sexual Identity: gay, straight, bi Gender Identity: male female trans Eating Disorders: approx.1% of girls (12-18) anorexic Boys 0.3% 1-3% bulimic 20% (estimated) engaged in less extreme unhealthy dieting Nutrition: ¾ of adolescents do not eat recommended servings Overweight: ages 12-19 (1971 – 2002) Boys 6.1% - 16.7% Girls 6.2% - 15.4% Physical activity level drops dramatically (9→12 grade)

  10. Brain Research Findings The brain continues to develop during adolescence. Areas under construction: • Prefrontal cortex – responsible for organizing, setting priorities, strategizing, controlling impulses • Brain functions that help plan and adapt to the social environment • Brain functions that help put situations into context; retrieve memories to connect with gut reactions

  11. Cognitive Development Is this Normal adolescent behavior? • to argue for the sake of arguing • to be self- centered • to constantly find fault in adult’s position • to be overly dramatic YES! from the adult’s perspective, anyway

  12. New powerful thinking machine 19 years • ability to think abstractly • ability to analyse situations logically • ability to think realistically about the future, goal setting • entertain hypothetical situations, use of metaphors • rediscover egocentrism • moral reasoning – moral relativism • Need guidance for rational decision making 10 years

  13. Piaget’s Formal Operations • Adolescent was in formal operational stage of cognition where thought is more abstract & adolescents are no longer limited to actual, concrete experiences as anchors for thought • They can now conjure up make-believe situations & events that are hypothetical possibilities & then try to reason logically about them – play with ideas, create imaginary worlds • In this stage: adolescent has ability to develop hypotheses, or best guesses to solve problems as in algebraic equation • They systematically deduce, or conclude best path to follow in solving equation

  14. Challenge to Piaget’s formal Operational Stage • There is much more individual variation than what he envisioned • Indeed, it is estimated than only 1 out of 3 young adolescents is a formal operational thinker, and many American adults never become such thinkers

  15. % adolescents using formal operations

  16. Social Emotional Development • Who am I? Where do I belong? • Identity development (gender, sexual, ethnic) • Self-esteem • Role of peer group • How do I relate to others? • Social Skills • Emotional Intelligence

  17. Erikson’s stage theory of social- emotional development -1

  18. Erikson’s stage theory of social- emotional development - 2

  19. Erikson’s stage theory of social- emotional development -1

  20. Questions about your adolescence Strongly agree Agree Not sure Disagree Strongly disagree I have a clear and positive idea of who I am I get confused about who I am or think that parts of me are not much good I can identify events in my adolescence or adulthood that were rites of passage - events that played a major role in forming who I am today. I have taken time-out from education, work and family to enable me to think about who I am and where I'm going (life, career, relationships) I believe that there is one correct way to fix the ills of society I don't need to have a strong sense of my own identity, The group I'm in represents who i am and what i stand for. I am happy to live by and support the standards of my community and country, even though they can be improved.

  21. Questions about adolescence - 2 Achieve ego identity and avoid role confusion. "Who am I?“ There will be clear rites of passage, certain accomplishments and rituals that help to distinguish the adult from the child. There will be a psychosocial moratorium. "time out." Go to Europe. Quit school and get a job. Quit your job and go to school. Leave home. Get to know yourself. A maladaptive tendency fanaticism. A fanatic believes that his way is the only way. Adolescents are, of course, known for their idealism, and for their tendency to see things in black-and-white. The malignant tendency of repudiation. They repudiate their membership in the world of adults and, even more, they repudiate their need for an identity. Some adolescents allow themselves to "fuse" with a group, religious cults or militaristic organizations. The virtue of fidelity. Loyalty, the ability to live by societies standards despite their imperfections and incompleteness and inconsistencies. You have found a place in that community, a place that will allow you to contribute.

  22. Rites of passage • Events, activites or processes which mark a transition from one stage of life to another. • They can involve skills mastered, achievements recognised, knowledge and/or responsibilities offered, the processing of brand new experiences, risks taken,

  23. Rites of passage • Can occur before birth including tangihanga and marriage - milestones in shifting attitudes and roles within families. • Cultural rights and responsibilities - new roles on the marae such as whaikōrero, karanga, and responsibility for hosting others • Creating a meaningful connection with their kāinga, whenua and hapū - a growing expertise in tribal history, karakia, waiata and tauparapara (knowledge of lore), kapahaka, Taiaha video • Going to work and doing service. Marae roles in the kitchen or sitting on the taumata (marae committee). Making a contribution around the home, on the farm, in the wider community. Food production and preparation – gathering, hunting, cooking, etc • Dances, wearing certain clothes • Birthdays (not that important) Religious rites confirmation, first communion and baptism. • Learning about racial prejudice, being able to give it a label

  24. IDENTITY • A stable concept of self as a unique individual with a system of values that provide a sense of direction • More confusion in technologically advanced cultures or cultures undergoing rapid change • Many traditional cultures have initiation rites • Problems in identity development leads to difficulties in later life

  25. Identity status (Marcia)

  26. Identity Achievement (exploration present, commitment present) • Most developed in terms of identity • Has experienced a period of exploration • Has developed commitments • Has a sense of personal well-being, high self-esteem, and self-acceptance • Cognitively flexible • Sets goals and works towards achieving them

  27. Identity Foreclosure: (exploration absent, commitment present) • Has commitments without considering alternatives • Commitments based on identification with parents, teachers, or other authority figures • Often authoritarian and inflexible

  28. Identity moratorium: (exploration present, commitment absent) • Actively exploring alternatives • Attempting to make choices with regard to occupation, ideological beliefs • Often anxious and intense • Ambivalent feelings towards parents and authority figures

  29. Identity diffusion: exploration absent, commitment absent • Least developed in terms of identity • Lacks commitments • Not trying to form commitments • May be carefree and uninvolved, or unhappy and lonely • May be angry, alienated, rebellious

  30. Other things are working….. • Development of empathy • Parental style in interaction with the temperament of the child - child with fearful with gentle discipline, child with fearless temperament with positive parental interactions • Cognitive abilities allowing transformation of situation in the child’s mind PLUS development of empathy PLUS internalising punishment and reward PLUS neurological development.

  31. It is possible for individuals to remain identity-diffuse or – foreclosed throughout life, or to move in various patterns among the statuses. • Diffusion and foreclosure are generally seen as less mature forms of identity. • An achieved identity is considered the optimum outcome. • Moratorium, or exploration period, is necessary for identity achievement.

  32. Several Models of cultural Development have been proposed • Many researchers agree that an achieved identity is the result of a crisis or awakening, which leads to a period of exploration or experimentation and finally to a commitment or incorporation of one’s culture.

  33. Phinney focused on the process of cultural identity formation. • The way in which individuals come to understand the implications of their culture and make decisions about its role in their lives, regardless of the extent of their cultural involvement.

  34. Studies of cultural Identity among American-born Students • All from high school or college with a diverse cultural background. • 196 Asian American, black, Hispanic, and white college students from an culturally diverse urban university established importance of cultural to the identity of minority group members.

  35. Stage 1: Unexamined cultural Identity • Characterized by the lack of exploration of culture. • Existing models suggest that minority subjects initially accept the values and attitudes of the majority culture. • Including internalized negative views of their own group held by the majority.

  36. Stage 2: Cultural Identity Search/Moratorium • The initial stage of cultural identity is conceptualized as continuing until adolescents encounter a situation that initiates an cultural identity search.

  37. Stage 3: Cultural Identity Achievement • The ideal outcome of the identity process, characterized by a clear, confident sense of one’s own cultural. • Identity achievement corresponds to acceptance and internalization of one’s culture.

  38. In Summary • The 3 stages of cultural identity • Unexamined cultural Identity • Cultural Identity Search/Moratorium • Cultural Identity Achievement

  39. cultural identity and peer group influence

  40. Gender development • Gender identity – distinguishing male and female people in the world. Around 2 years. • Gender stability – identifying self as one gender and that this will continue. Around 3-4 years. • Gender constancy – other people won’t change from one gender to another. Around 6 or 7 years.


  42. Lawrence Kohlberg – moral development

  43. Moral development – the ability to tell right from wrong and behave accordingly • Kohlberg’s stage theory • Changes in moral reasoning result from changes in ways of thinking (cognitive structures) • Children actively construct their moral reality • Moral dilemmas

  44. Stages

  45. Moral dilemma: Heinz and the druggist In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200.00 for the radium and charged $2,000.00 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000.00 which is half what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No, I’ve discovered the drug, and I’m going to make money out of it.” So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why? Examples

  46. Level 1. Preconventional Morality • Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. • Kohlberg's stage 1 is similar to Piaget's first stage of moral thought. The child assumes that powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules which he or she must unquestioningly obey.

  47. Preconventional level: Morality centres on avoiding punishment and obtaining reward Reasons to steal drug Reasons to not steal drug He’ll get caught. He shouldn’t have to pay with jail time for his wife’s problem • He should steal it if he likes his wife a lot; if he gets caught, he won’t get much of a jail term, so he’ll get to see her when he gets out