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A Woman’s Struggles . By: Amber Moore, Courtney White & Devina Flores . Participation in the Civil Rights Movement . In the 1960’s women from all walks of life participated in the civil rights movement Women were important members of new groups such as: SNCC, SCLC, and NAACP

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a woman s struggles

A Woman’s Struggles

By: Amber Moore, Courtney White & Devina Flores

participation in the civil rights movement
Participation in the Civil Rights Movement
  • In the 1960’s women from all walks of life participated in the civil rights movement
  • Women were important members of new groups such as: SNCC, SCLC, and NAACP
  • They found themselves treated as second class citizens; men talked about women as if they were superior
  • Women eventually started making liberation/ traditional groups whose purpose was to improve rights for themselves.
taking it to the supremes
Taking it to the Supremes
  • Initial efforts to convince the Supreme Court to give woman equal protection rights under the 14th amendment were unsuccessful
  • Hoyt v. Florida :

Facts of the Case – Women were exempt from being apart of a jury and when Mrs. Hoyt was convicted by an all men jury, she thought the Florida statute was violating the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th amendment.

Decision- The court ruled in favor of Florida (9-0) stating “male- female disproportions on jury lists carried no constitutional significance.”

gender based discrimination
Gender Based Discrimination

Since 1976 the Court has found the following kinds of practices as a violation of the 14th amendment:

  • Single-sex public nursing schools
  • Laws that consider males adults at 21 and females at 18
  • Laws that allow women but not men to receive alimony
  • State prosecutor’s of peremptory challenges to reject men or women to create more sympathetic juries
  • Virginia's maintenance of an all-male military college the Virginia military institute
  • Different requirements for a child’s acquisition of citizenship based on whether the citizen parents is a mother or a father
  • The court has upheld the following governmental practices and laws
  • - draft registration provisions for males only
  • - state statutory rape laws that apply only to female victims
the creation of now
The Creation of NOW
  • In 1966 after the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission failed to enforce the law as it applied to sex discrimination.
  • Female activists formed the National Organization for Woman (NOW was modeled closely on the NAACP)
  • Two goals to achieve:

- achievement of equality either by passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution

- or by judicial decision

slide6
Timeline

1961: The President’s Commission on the Status of Women was created shortly after JFK was elected. (headed by former first lady Eleanor Roosevelt)

1964: The Civil Rights Act prohibited discrimination based on not only race but sex.

1973: In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme court decided thatwomen had a right to privacy when it includes terminating a baby

1963: The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan led women to question their lives in society and help them recognize something was wrong.

1972: Equal rights Amendment (ERA) bar discrimination against women by federal or state governments

ending quote
Ending Quote 

“Woman have won important victories under the act, but a large wage gap between men and women continues to exist, as underscored women in 2004 earned less than 77% of what men earned.”

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