Moral and Social Development Piaget/Kohlberg / Loevinger Presented by: Khadija GOUALI Nadia BAT Ikram AIT DRA Mustapha OMARAKLY Brahim MEZGAR
The outline • Piaget’s theory of Moral development. • Kohlberg’s stages of Moral reasoning. • Moral Development in the classroom. • Criticisms of Kohlberg's theory. • Loevinger’s Social Development.
Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development • MORALITY: one's ability to distinguish between right and wrong, and to be able to act on this distinction. • Piaget’s theory of cognitive development also include a theory about the development of moral reasoning. • Moral development depends on cognitive development that is, one have to understand right from wrong if he/she is to be expected to act in right or wrong ways.
Experiment • To understand children's moral reasoning, , Piaget spent a great deal of time watching children play marbles and ask them about the rules of the game. • He pretended to be ignorant of the rules of the game and asked children to explain them to him.
Findings • Before age of 6, children play by their own idiosyncratic rules. • Very young children are incapable of interacting in cooperative ways and therefore unable to engage in moral reasoning. • By the age of 6, children acknowledged the existence of rules. • children did not conscientiously use and follow rules until the age of 10 or 12 years, when they are capable of formal operations.
stages of moral development Heteronomous morality • In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads automatically to punishment. Autonomous morality • In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which children understand that people make rules and that punishments are not automatic.
Distinction Heteronomous Morality Autonomous Morality • Based on relations of constraint. • Reflected in attitudes of moral realism: • rules are seen as inflexible requirements • external in origin and authority • not open to negotiation, • “right” is a matter of literal obedience to adults and rules. • Based on relations of cooperation and mutual recognition of equality. • Reflected in rational moral attitudes: • rules are viewed as products of mutual agreement • open to recognition • made legitimate by personal acceptance and common consent • “right” is a matter of acting in accordance with the requirements of cooperation and mutual respect.
Badness is judged in terms of the objective form and consequences of actions; • fairness is equated with the content of adult decisions • arbitrary and severe punishment are seen as fair. • Punishment is seen as automatic consequences of the offense and justice is seen as inherent. • Badness is viewed as relative to the actor’s intentions; • fairness is defined as equal treatment or taking account of individual needs • fairness of punishment is defined by appropriateness of the offense. • Punishment is seen as affected by human intention.
Story A Story B • A little boy who is called John is in his room. He is called to dinner. He goes into the dining room. But behind the dining room door there was a chair, and on the chair there were 12 cups. John couldn't have known that there was all this behind the door. He goes in, the door knocks against the tray, bang go the 12 cups, and they all get broken. • Once there was a little boy whose name was Henry. One day when his mother was out he tried to reach some jam out of the cupboard. He climbed onto a chair and stretched out his arm. But the jam was too high up and he couldn't reach it.... While he was trying to get it, he knocked over a cup. The cup fell down and broke
Piaget’s Method: Sample Dialog Between a Researcher and a Child • The following dialog is revealing (from Piaget, 1932/1962, pp. 124-125): • Q: Is one of the boys [who broke teacups] naughtier than the other? • A: The first is because he knocked over twelve cups. • Q: If you were the daddy, which one would you punish most? • A: The one who broke twelve cups. • Q: Why did he break them? • A: The door shut too hard and knocked them. He didn’t do it on purpose. • Q: And why did the other boy break a cup? • A: He wanted to get the jam. He moved too far. The cup got broken. • Q: Why did he want to get the jam? • A: Because he was all alone. Because his mother wasn’t there. • Q: Have you got a brother? • A: No, a little sister. • Q: Well, if it was you who had broken the twelve cups when you went into the room and your little sister who had broken one cup when she was trying to get the jam, which of you would be punished more severely? • A: Me, because I broke more than one cup.
* Clearly this child understand that the boy who broke twelve cups did not do this intentionally, yet he still claims that this boy was more guilty (deserved greater punishment) than the one who broke just a single cup while doing something he wasn’t supposed to be doing. *Guilt is determined by the extent of violation of rules rather than by intention.
KOHLBERG'S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT • Kohlberg believed much of Piaget's theory but thought it should be extended into adolescence and adulthood. • Kohlberg was less interested in what the subject's decision was than in the underlying rationale. What is important is HOW they EXPLAINED their judgments. • 1) Like Piaget, Kohlberg developed stages of Moral development which follow some invariant sequences. • 2) Because each successive stage is built upon the foundation of an earlier one, each stage must be followed in a particular order. • 3) Again, according to Kohlberg, each stage represents a METHOD OF THINKING about a moral dilemma rather than a particular TYPE of moral decision.
The Heinz Dilemma: A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
What would you do? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Kohlberg’s 3 levels of moral development Pre-Conventional Moral Development • Stage 1 • Stage 2 Conventional Moral Development • Stage 3 • Stage 4 Post-Conventional Moral Development • Stage 5 • Stage 6
Level 1: Pre-conventional Morality 0-9 years Stage 1 - Obedience and PunishmentEspecially common in young children, but adults are capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. • Obeys rules in order to avoid punishment • Determines a sense of right and wrong by what is punished and what is not punished • Obeys superior authority and allows that authority to make the rules, especially if that authority has the power to inflict pain • Is responsive to rules that will affect his/her physical well-being Stage 2 – Naively egotisticalAt this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. • Is motivated by vengeance or “an eye for an eye” philosophy • Is self-absorbed while assuming that he/she is generous • Believes in equal sharing in that everyone gets the same, regardless of need • Believes that the end justifies the means • Will do a favor only to get a favor • Expects to be rewarded for every non-selfish deed he/she does
Level 2: Conventional Morality 10-15 years Stage 3 - "good boy-good girl" orientation This stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships. • Attitude which seeks to do what will gain the approval of others • Feels that intensions are as important as deeds and expects others to accept intentions or promises in place of deeds • Begins to put himself/herself in another’s shoes and think from another perspective Stage 4 – Law and Social Order At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty, and respecting authority. • Respects authority and obeys it without question • Supports the rights of the majority without concern for those in the minority • Is part of about 80% of the population that does not progress past stage 4
I will do what I am supposed to do as things work out better when everyone follows the rules.
Level 3: Post-conventional Morality – 16+ Stage 5 - Legalistic Social Contract At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards. • Is motivated by the belief in the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people • Believes in consensus (everyone agrees), rather than in majority rule • Respects the rights of the minority especially the rights of the individual • Believes that change in the law is possible but only through the system Stage 6 – Universal ethical Principles Kohlberg's final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules. • Believes that there are high moral principles than those represented by social rules and customs • Is willing to accept the consequences for disobedience of the social rule he/she has rejected • Believes that the dignity of humanity is sacred and that all humans have value
I will do (or wont do) what I am supposed to do because I think ( or don’t think) it is the right thing to do.
Kohlberg believed that individuals could only progress through these stages one stage at a time. That is, they could not "jump" stages. They could not, for example, move from an orientation of selfishness to the law and order stage without passing through the good boy/girl stage. • They could only come to a comprehension of a moral rationale one stage above their own. Thus, according to Kohlberg, it was important to present them with moral dilemmas for discussion which would help them to see the reasonableness of a "higher stage" morality and encourage their development in that direction. • The last comment refers to Kohlberg's moral discussion approach. He saw this as one of the ways in which moral development can be promoted through formal education. Note that Kohlberg believed, as did Piaget, that most moral development occurs through social interaction. The discussion approach is based on the insight that individuals develop as a result of cognitive conflicts at their current stage.
Let’s Practice!Situation 1 Sophia borrowed her father’s car. She and her friend Soumia were very late coming home that evening. They were further delayed at a stop light on a quiet street. After what seemed to be an unnecessary long wait, Soumia reminded Sophia that they were late. Sophia continued to wait, insisting that if everyone ignored stop lights when it was personally convenient to do so, no street would be safe. • At what stage do you think Sophia's decision was? Why?
Let’s Practice! Situation 2 Brahim was not prepared for a difficult exam, so he wrote some important formulas on a slip of paper which he put in his pocket before the test. Just before the test began, the teacher informed the class that any student caught cheating would automatically fail the test. Even though Brahim needed the information he wrote, he didn’t use it because the teacher stood too close to his desk during the entire exam. • At what stage do you think Brahim's decision was? Why?
Value to Practitioners • Educators (and families) have grappled with the important distinction that theories deal with moral reasoning rather than actual moral behavior. • Successful programs have incorporated values education at the global, local, and individual levels. 1/Global Level-Districtwide Approach. • Many schools have chosen to institutionalize a global, inclusive approach to character building with input from teachers, administrators, parents, and, at the higher grade levels, even students. This emphasizes the individual citizen as a member of the social institution and advocate particular levels of moral behavior.
2/ Local Level-Classroom Instruction. • A teacher might choose to capitalize on students’ natural curiosity and might teach values and decision making through “What if…?” discussions. • The classroom is an ideal laboratory in which students can test hypothetical situations and potential consequences. Teachers must recognize the cognitive abilities of those in their class and maximize these abilities through problem-solving activities. • An effective moral educator is no easy task. Teachers must reexamine their teaching role; they must be willing to create cognitive conflict in their classrooms and to stimulate social perspective taking in students.
3/ Individual Level-Conflict Management. • Families want schools to provide students with the necessary tools to mediate serious conflicts without violence, and teachers and administrators are evaluating or initiating conflict resolution programs in many schools (see Bodine, Crawford, & Schrumpf, 1994).
What the stages of moral development Mean to a teacher • In the classroom having a basic understanding of a student is important. • Decisions based on trust could be based on how “ morally developed” a student is . • Using this theory to improve a student and progress them morally could be useful.
How to Apply Kohlberg's Theory in the Classroom • can be applied to the classroom where rules, standards, and consequences are concerned. • The theory tracks an individual's level of moral reasoning by assigning him to one of six stages, where the first stage is a basic submission to authority and the last is universal ethics for all. • As an educator: - consider where your students' personal development lies in terms of Kohlberg's six stages. - Then work toward achieving optimal moral character along the lines of Kohlberg's level six.
instructions • 1/ • Give students the opportunity to help create a classroom code of conduct. - By creating classroom policy, students can advance from stage one submission to stage three where they are accountable within the small classroom community.
2/ • Allow for a written self evaluation as part of any disciplinary consequence. • - This type of action relates to Kohlberg's fourth stage of morality, in which individuals do their part to maintain order by reflecting on the impact of their words and actions.
3/ • Plan group projects where students work together toward the understanding of curriculum instead of sitting back and listening to the teacher talk at them. • Kohlberg's fifth morality stage on upholding a social contract.
4/ • Make time for role play, whether it be related to the curriculum or used as a problem solving tool. • Kohlberg's sixth stage, in which the needs of every person in society are worth considering.
It is wartime, and you’re hiding in a basement with your baby and a group of other people. Enemy soldiers are outside and will be drawn to any sound. If you are found. You will be killed immediately. Your baby starts to cry loudly and cannot be stopped. Smothering him to death is the only way to silence him and save the lives of everyone in the room. Could you do so? Assume the baby is not yours, the parents are unknown and there will be no penalty for killing him. Could you be the one who smother this baby if no one else would? Your baby someone else’s baby Yes Yes No No The Crying Baby
Criticisms of the moral development theory • Kohlberg’s work involves only boys • Some research on girls‘ moral reasoning finds patterns that are somewhat different from those proposed by Kohlberg. Whereas boys' moral reasoning revolves primarily around issues of justice, girls are more concerned about issues of caring and responsibility for others (Gilligan, 1982, 1985; Gilligan & Attanucci, 1988; Haspe & Baddeley, 1991). • Kohlberg’s theory is heavily dependent on an individual’s response to an artificial dilemma. This brings question to the validity of the results obtained through this research.
Young children can often reason about moral situations in more sophisticated ways than a stage theory : • Children as young as 3 or 4 years old use intentions to judge the behavior of others.
Turiel(1998) demonstrated in hisreasearchthat children as young as 2 to 3 years old make distinctions between moral and social-conventional rules: young children make a distinction between moral rules, such as not lying and stealing, that are based on principles of justice, and social-conventional rules, such as not wearing pajamas to school, that are based on social consensus and etiquette.
kohlberg’stheory deals with moral reasoning rather than with actual behavior • Behavior may be affected by many other factors other than reasoning such as the ability to interpret correctly what is happening in a social situation, the motivation to behave in a moral fashion, and the social skills necessary to actually carry out a moral plan of action. • Many individuals at different stages behave in the same way, and individuals at the same stage often behave in different ways
EGO DEVELOPMENT THEORY (Loevinger)
Jane Loevingerconceptualized the theory of ego development in which the ego was theorized to mature and evolve through a process across the lifespan as a result of a dynamic interaction between the inner self and the outer environment'
Including nine sequential stages, each of which represents a progressively more complex way of perceiving oneself in relation to the world.. each new ego stage or frame of reference builds on the previous one and integrates it,
1- pre-social²stage during infancy. • babies have a very id-like ego that is very focused on gratifying immediate needs. • They tend to be very attached to the primary caregiver, often the mother, and while they differentiate her from the rest of the world, they tend experience a cognitive confusion and emotional fusion between the caregiver and the self.
2- The impulsive stage Toddlers • The ego continues to be focused on bodily feelings, basic impulses,and immediate needs. • They experience the world in egocentric terms, in terms of how things are affecting me. If something or someone meets my needs, it is good; if something or someone frustrates my needs, it is bad. Thus, their thinking is very simplistic and dichotomous.
3- The self-protective stage early and middle childhood • self potective ego is still using his/her greater awareness of cause and effect, of rules and consequences, to get what they want from others. Therefore, they tend to be exploitive, manipulative, and opportunistic.