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Moral development. Reward Allocation and Personal Entitlement: Equity or Equality. Women tend to pay themselves less than men do when dividing rewards between themselves and others

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Moral development

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reward allocation and personal entitlement equity or equality
Reward Allocation and Personal Entitlement: Equity or Equality
  • Women tend to pay themselves less than men do when dividing rewards between themselves and others
  • Women report as much satisfaction with their jobs as men do – despite the fact that they tend to hold jobs that are lower in status and more poorly paid than men’s
  • Women’s standards of what is fair pay for themselves are lower than those of men.
moral development as moral reasoning
Moral development as moral reasoning
  • Freud – superego
  • Piaget – 1965 equity, which involves taking into account the personal circumstances of each individual was more useful and advanced form of justice than equality.
  • Kohlberg – Moral development model
  • Gilligan – Moral development model
Kohlberg's classification can be outlined in the following manner:


1 Obedience and Punishment

2 Instrumental hedonism -Individualism, Instrumentalism, and Exchange


3 "Good boy/girl" – Interpersonal concordance

4 Law and Order


5 Social Contract

6 Principled Conscience – Universal moral principals.

carol gilligan 1982
Carol Gilligan - 1982
  • In a Different Voice
gilligan s stages of moral development
Gilligan’s Stages of Moral Development
  • Orientation to self
  • From selfishness to self-sacrifice
  • Goodness of self-sacrifice – maternal morality
  • From Goodness to Truth

3. Morality of Non-violence

two different kinds of moral reasoning is there a gender difference
Two different kinds of Moral reasoning? Is there a gender difference

1. Morality of Rights – Kohlberg

2. Morality of Caring - Gilligan

l j walker 1982
L. J. Walker - 1982

Meta-analysis of studies of moral reasoning as measured by Kohlberg’s interview method on 106 samples of children adolescents and adults.

Only 8 showed difference favoring males – and this was confounded by occupational-educational differences.

Walker – rather than arguing over the extent to which gender bias is inherent in Kohlberg’s theory it would be more appropriate to ask why, in face of so little evidence, the myth persists that males are more advanced in Kohlberg’s level of moral reasoning than females.

ford lowery 1986
Ford & Lowery – 1986

Compared women and men in their use of the rights and care orientation in their moral judgment. They asked male and female undergraduates to describe 3 important moral conflicts in their lives and rate the extent they used the rights and care orientation in their decisions.

Men and women did not differ significantly in the degree to which they used the rights and care orientation.