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Revolution. Respectfully Submitted C. Stephen Ingraham. Social Studies Block # ___ Name _____________________ Mrs. Castagna & Mr. Ingraham Date _______________. The Revolutionary War Table of Contents 1. Revolutionary Vocabulary Terms 2. Revolutionary War Song

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Respectfully Submitted

C. Stephen Ingraham


Social Studies Block # ___ Name _____________________

Mrs. Castagna & Mr. Ingraham Date _______________

The Revolutionary War

Table of Contents

1. Revolutionary Vocabulary Terms

2. Revolutionary War Song

3. The French and Indian War


The Revolutionary War Song # I

The Loyalist Sing

1. God save our gracious King,

Long live our noble King,

God save the King!

Send him victorious,

Happy and glorious,

Long to reign over us, God Save the King.

2. O Lord and God arise,

Scatter his enemies,

And make them fall.

Confound their politics,

Frustrate their knavish tricks,

On Thee our hopes we fix God Save the King.

3. Thy choicest gifts in store

On him be pleased to pour

Long may he reign!

May he defend our laws

And ever give us cause

To sing with heart and voice God save the King.

Author Unknown

Sung to the tune: “America”


The Revolutionary War Song # II

The Patriots Sing

1.My country,' tis of thee,

sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing;

land where my fathers died,

land of the pilgrims' pride,

from every mountainside let freedom ring!

2.My native country, thee,

land of the noble free, thy name I love;

I love thy rocks and rills,

thy woods and templed hills;

my heart with rapture thrills,like that above.

3.Let music swell the breeze,

and ring from all the trees sweet freedom's song

let mortal tongues awake;

let all that breathe partake;

let rocks their silence break,the sound prolong.

4.Our fathers' God, to thee,

author of liberty, to thee we sing;

long may our land be bright

with freedom's holy light;

protect us by thy might, great God, our King.


Revolutionary Vocabulary Terms

Boycott - to refuse to buy certain goods and services.

Repeal - canceled

Writ of Assistance - a legal document giving customs officers the right to inspect

a ship’s cargo without reason.

Nonimportation agreement - when merchants and planters signed an agreement

to stop importing goods taxed by the Townshend Acts.

Committee of correspondence - A group organized by Samuel Adams which wrote

letters and pamphlets reporting on events in


Militia - a colonial army made up of citizens who will serve as soldiers during an


Minuteman - volunteers soldiers who trained to be prepared to fight at a minute’s


Blockade - the shutting off of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or


Traitor - a person who betrays his or her country.

Patriots - people who supported independence from England

Loyalists - people who remained loyal to Britain and the British King.

Cavalry - soldiers on horseback.

Neutral - not taking sides in a dispute.

Ratify - to approve.


Revolutionary Vocabulary Terms


Proclamation of 1763 - did not allow any settlement west of the crest of

Appalachian Mountains.

Sugar Tax - A 1764 tax on molasses

Stamp Act - (1765) - a tax on legal documents, wills, diplomas, marriage papers,

newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and dice.

Townshend Acts - laws passed by English Parliament taxing goods such as

glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea.

Quartering Acts - A law that required colonists to provide housing, candles,

bedding, and beverages to British soldiers station in the colonies.

Intolerable Acts - punishment for the Massachusetts colony

1) Boston’s harbor was closed until the tea was paid for.

2) Only one annual town meeting was allowed with the governor’s permission

3) British Custom Officers and officials charge with crimes must be tried in


4) New Quartering Acts allowing British troops to be housed in the homes of

the colonists.


Revolutionary Vocabulary Terms


The First Continental Congress - A meeting in Philadelphia in 1774 which resolved

to back Massachusetts in the struggle against

the Intolerable Acts.

The Second Continental Congress - a 1775 meeting in Philadelphia with deligates

from the 13 English Colonies.

The Olive Branch Petition - a message sent to King George III declaring the

Continental Congress’ loyalty and asking for the repeal

of the Intolerable Acts.

Common Sense - (1776) a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine urging the colonies

to declare independence from England.

Declaration of Independence - a 1776 document to tell the world why the colonies

were breaking away from Britain.

New france


New France

Quebec .

New England Colonies

Montreal .

New Hampshire

New France

St. Lawrence River

. Boston


. Plymouth

Rocky Mountains

. Newport


. Perth Amboy

Rhode Island

. Philadelphia

Middle Colonies

. Baltimore

North America

New France

New York

Appalachian Mts.

. Jamestown

New Jersey

. San Francisco

. Norfork

English Colonies




Mississippi River

. Charleston

. Los Angeles

Southern Colonies

. Savanna

. Natchez


St. Augustine .

. San Diego


New Orleans .

North Carolina

South Carolina



Gulf of Mexico

Atlantic Ocean


New Spain

Pacific Ocean

1753 C.E.


I. The French and Indian War


A. Opening Shots

1. Between 1689 - 1748 France & Great Britain fought three wars for power in

Europe & North America.

2. In 1754 the uneasy peace ended and the French and Indian War began over

the Ohio River Valley.

3. Virginia’s Lieutenant Governor sent General Washington to build a fort

where the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers meet, however the French built

Fort Duquesne there first.

4. Washington’s force of 150 men was outnumbered, surrounded, & captured,

however the French soon released General Washington.

B. The Albany Congress

1. Delegates from seven colonies meet at Albany, New York

a. to ask the Iroquois to help, however they only agreed not to support

the French.

b. to plan a united defense.

2. Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Action which created a

Grand Council of representatives from each colony to make laws and raise

taxes to set up a defense.

3. However, the plan was not approved, because no colony wanted to give up

any powers to a central council.



C. Early Years of the War

1. New France had advantages over the divided colonies

a. a single government could act quickly.

b. the French had the support of Indian Allies.

2. The British advantages were:

a. the French settlements were widely scattered.

b. 15 times more colonists than the French.

c. the British Navy ruled the seas.

3. British General “Bulldog” Braddock attempted to attack Fort Duquesne.

In a surprise French attack over half of the British & Colonial force and

General Braddock was killed.

D. A Bold leader Takes Charge

1. In 1757 William Pitt become head of the British Government and

concentrates on winning the war in North America first.

2. The British seize Fort Duquesne from the French (renamed Fort Pitt)

E. The Fall of New France

1. In 1759 the British capture Forts Niagara, Crown Point, & Ticonderoga.

2. British General Wolfe plans to capture Quebec to cut off supplies to New

France. He is killed, but after a fierce battle France loses.

3. Later the city of Montreal also falls to English soldiers.

4. In 1753 the Treaty of Paris end French Control in North America. The British

gain all of Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River.

5. The French ally Spain gives up Florida but receives land west of Mississippi.


II. A Storm Over Taxes


A. New Troubles on the Frontier

1. The English colonists want to farm the former French western lands.

2. Many Native American tribes: The Senecas, Delawares, Shawnees,

Ottawas, Miamis, & Hurons lived in the Ohio River Valley.

3. In 1762 British Lord Jeffrey Amherst

a) refused to give Native Americans gifts

b) raised the price of British goods traded to the Native Americans

c) built forts on Native American lands.

4. The Ottawa Chief, Pontiac, attacked Fort Detroit and captured other British

forts, but the French informed him that they had signed the Treaty of Paris.

B. Proclamation of 1763

To keep peace with the Native Americans:

a) Settlers were forbidden to settled west of the crest of the

Appalachian Mountains.

b) 10,000 soldiers were sent to keep the peace which the colonists were

expected to pay for them.

New france1


Quebec .

New England Colonies

Montreal .

New Hampshire

New France

St. Lawrence River

. Boston


. Plymouth

Rocky Mountains

. Newport


. Perth Amboy

Rhode Island

. Philadelphia

Middle Colonies

. Baltimore

North America

New York

Appalachian Mts.

. Jamestown

. San Francisco

New Jersey

. Norfork

English Colonies

Mississippi River




. Los Angeles

. Charleston

Southern Colonies

. Savanna

. Natchez


St. Augustine .

. San Diego

New Orleans .


North Carolina

South Carolina



Gulf of Mexico

Atlantic Ocean


New Spain

Pacific Ocean

1763 C.E.


II. A Storm Over Taxes


C. Stamp Act Crisis

1. Britain was in debt because of the French and Indian War and taxes were

raised for English Citizens.

2. Prime Minister Grenville thought the colonists should also share part of

the burden:

a) Sugar Tax (1764) placed a tax on molasses.

b) Stamp Act (1765) placed a tax on legal documents (wills, diplomas,

marriage papers, newspapers, almanacs, & playing cards)

3. “No Taxation without Representation” Parliament had no right to tax the

colonists. Only their elected representatives in the colonial legislatures

could tax them.

4. In 1765 (9 delegates) The Stamp Act Congress met in New York City

a) petitioned King George III and Parliament to end the Stamp Act.

b) called for a boycott of British goods.

5. In 1766 Parliament repealed, or canceled, the Stamp Act.

D. More Taxes

1. The Treasury Lord Charles Townshend creates the Townshend Acts which

places a low tax on glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea.

2. Custom officers could use writs of assistance to inspect a ship’s cargo

without cause.

3. Colonists claimed this violated the rights of English citizens, because

English Law allowed this only if a person was suspected of a crime.


II. A Storm Over Taxes


E. Colonist Fight Back

1. Nonimportation Agreements promises to stop importing all items taxed by

the Townshend Acts.

2. Groups form to protest British Policies -Sons of Liberty & Daughters of Liberty

F. Leaders in the Struggle

1. In Massachusetts

a) Samuel Adams organized Committee of Correspondence which wrote

letters and pamphlets telling of British activities.

b) John Adams explained violations of English Laws

c) Mercy Otis Warren publish plays that made fun of English officials.

2. In Virginia

a) George Washington with other members of the House of Burgesses


b) Patrick Henry gave speeches against the English & their policies.

G. Centers of Protest

1. The larger colonial port cities of New York and Boston were also protesting.

2. In New York the assembly was dismissed when it refused to obey the

Quartering Act which required housing, candles, bedding, & beverages for

British Troops.

3. In Boston two regiments of British Soldiers were sent to protect the custom

officials from the citizens.


II. A Storm Over Taxes


H. The Boston Massacre

1. On March 5, 1770 a crowd of citizens protesting outside a customs house

threw snowballs, ice chunks and oyster shells at soldiers.

2. The British soldiers fire into the crowd killing 5 people.

3. This Boston Massacre outraged the colonists and the soldiers were

brought to trial.

4. John Adams defended the British soldiers saying the crowd provoked them

I. Repeal of the Townshend Acts

1. British Merchants losing money pressured Parliament to repeal the

Townshend Acts.

2. King George III insisted that Parliament keep the tax on tea to establish

the Parliament’s right to tax the colonies.



A. Uproar Over Tea

1. In 1770 The British East India Company had15 million pounds of unsold tea

because of the colonial boycott.

2. The Tea Act of 1773 allowed the British East India Company to bypass the

colonial tea merchants and sell directly to the colonists.

3. Colonist wondered if Parliament ruined colonial tea merchants, who would

be next?

B. The Boston Tea Party

1. The citizens of Boston demanded that the governor send three ships with

a cargo to tea back.

2. On December 16, 1773 when the governor refused on December 16, 1773

50-60 people disguised as Mohawk Indians dumped the cargo of tea into

the harbor.

C. Britain Strikes Back

1. In 1774 Parliament punishes Massachusetts:

a) Boston Harbor is closed until the tea is paid for.

b) No town meetings more than once a year without the governor’s


c) Any British officials charged with crimes would be tried in England.

d) New Quartering Act forced colonists to house soldiers in their home.

2. Colonists called these the Intolerable Acts.

III. To Arms



D. The First Continental Congress

1. In September 1774 Delegates of 12 colonies meet in Philadelphia.

2. The Delegates decide;

a) to support Massachusetts and boycott all British goods.

b) to encourage each colony to form militias, or an army of citizens.

E. The Shot Heard ‘Round the World

1. On April 18, 1775 General Thomas Gage sent 700 British soldiers to seize

a store of arms at Concord, Massachusetts.

2. Captain John Parker’s colonial volunteers known as minutemen, because

they would be ready at a moment’s notice, at Lexington blocked the way.

3. Musket fire was exchanged eight colonist were killed and one British soldier

4. The minutemen attacked the British soldiers as they returned to Boston

killing another 70. There was no turning back the 13 colonies were at war.

III. To Arms



A. The Green Mountain Boys

1. Ethan Allen led a band of Vermont militia, the Green Mountain Boys.

2. In 1775 the attack Fort Ticonderoga seizing valuable cannons & gun powder.

B. Last Efforts for Peace

1. The Second Continental Congress:

a) issues the Olive Branch Petitions which declared loyalty to King, but

asked for the repeal of the Intolerable Acts.

b) established the Continental Army and proposed George Washington

as its commander.

C. Strengths and Weaknesses

1. American Weaknesses: Untrained Army, little gun powder & cannons, &

no navy.

2. American Strengths: 3,000 miles from England, defending homeland &

Washington’s leadership was respected.

3. British Strengths: Army highly trained & experienced, most powerful navy.

D. Taking a Stand at Bunker Hill

1. In 1775 Colonel William Prescott & 1,200 minutemen take up position on

Bunker & breed’s Hills.

2. British General William Howe attacks with 2,400 British Redcoats.

3. After 3 attacks the colonial troops run out of gun powder. 1,000 British are

killed and 400 colonials are dead.

IV. The American Revolution



E. Redcoats Leave Boston

1. General Washington trains about 16,000 colonial soldiers near Boston.

2. He set up captured cannons on the Dorchester Heights overlook Boston

and its harbor.

3. The British General Howe sails out of the city, but King George III orders

a blockade which closes the harbor to all trade.

F. March on Canada

1. In 1775 Colonial General Richard Montgomery seizes the Canadian city of

Montreal in November.

2. On December 31 General Montgomery & General Benedict Arnold attack

the Canadian city of Quebec. They fail to take the city.

3. In May 1776 British Reinforcement arrive and the colonial troop withdraw.

IV. The American Revolution


IV. The American Revolution

Independence Declared - THE ENGLISH COLONIES UNITE

A. Common Sense

In January 1776 Thomas Paine writes the pamphlet “Common Sense”

he argues that the colonists have nothing to gain by staying under British

rule and should declare their independence.

B. The Fateful Step

1. In June 1776 Richard Henry Lee of Virginia resolves at the Continental

Congress“These united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and

independent states”.

2. Although they could be hanged as traitors, the delegates as Thomas

Jefferson to write a document explaining why the colonies were breaking

away from England.

3. On July 2, 1776 the Congress voted for independence and on July 4th they

voted to accept Jefferson’s document “the Declaration of Independence”.

C. The Declaration

1. The first part explains the basic rights of all humans.

2. The second part lists the British wrongs.

3. The last part announce that the colonies are now the United States

D. Choosing Sides

1/3 of the colonist were Patriots supporting independence from England,

1/3 of the colonists were Loyalists supporting the English King, and

1/3 of the colonist did not take sides or were neutral.


IV. The American Revolution


A. Campaign in New York

1. In June 1776 The British Fleet & General Howe’s army arrives in New York

Harbor with 34,000 soldiers & 10,000 sailors.

2. General Washington has 20,000 poorly trained troops and is forced to

retreat from Long Island to Manhattan to New Jersey and to Pennsylvania.

B. New Hope for Americans

1. Thomas Payne writes “The Crisis” encouraging Americans to support the

continental Army & George Washington.

2. General Washington in a surprise attack captures Trenton, New Jersey on

December 26th and captures Princeton. Before wintering at Morristown.

C. A New British Strategy

1. In 1777 British General Burgoyne suggests a plan to cut New England from

the other English Colonies, by capturing Albany, New York.

2. General Howe was supposed to march from New York City, However in July

he decides to capture Philadelphia first. He defeats Washington troops at the

battles of Brandywine and Germantown.

3. General Barry St. Leger marches from Canada, but fails to capture Fort

Stanwix from General Benedict Arnold.

4. Only General Burgoyne also marching from Canada arrives to attack Albany.

He retakes Fort Ticonderoga, but is surrounded by the American forces

reinforced by the Green Mountain Boys. He surrenders at Saratoga on

October 17, 1777


IV. The American Revolution


D. A Powerful Ally

1. In 1776 the Continental Congress sent Benjamin Franklin to France to

persuade King Louis XVI to help the Americans giving supplies & weapons.

2. In February 1778 After the American victory at Saratoga France signed a

treaty recognizing the new nation and agreeing to provide military aid.

E. Cold Winter at Valley Forge

The winter of 1777-8 was severe. The American troops had no shoes, warm

clothes, little food, and medicine. The soldiers had frostbite and disease.

F. Help from Abroad

1. Marquis de Lafayette brought trained soldiers to the United States

2. Thaddeus Kosciusko a polish engineer helped design American forts.

3. Casimir Pulaski trained American cavalry.

4. Bernardo de Galvez the Spanish governor of Louisiana supplies medicine,

cloth, muskets, and gunpowder.

5. Friedrich von Steuben a Prussian officer drills Continental troops.


IV. The American Revolution


A. Fighting on the Frontier

1. Most Native Americans tried to remained neutral in the white man’s war.

2. Some took sides: The Algonquins - the Patriots

The Iroquois - The British (both) The Cherokees - the Patriots

3. In 1778-9 George Rogers Clark captured the British forts of Kaskaskia,

Cohokia, and Vincennes in the Ohio Valley.

B. Victory at Sea

1. The powerful British Navy blockades American ports.

2. In 1779 Captain John Paul Jones & the “Bonhomme Richard” defeats the

British “Serapis”

C. African Americans in the Battle for Freedom

1. The British offer African Americans their freedom if they fight for them

2. General Washington allows free Africans to join the Continental Army- 5,000

3. Since the Declaration of Independence says “All men are created equal”

many thought the Revolutionary War would end slavery.

D. Women in the War

1.Women help the patriots by planting & harvesting crops, making weapons,

shoes, clothing, cleaning, cooking, even fighting and caring for the wounded.

E. A young Girl’s War

1. Many like Sally Wister met militia men from other colonies and learned

about other places and saw the effect of the war.


IV. The American Revolution

The World Turned Upside Down - THE COLONIES UNITE

A. War in the South

1. Loyalist force is defeated at the Battle of Moore’s Creek Bridge Feb. 1776.

2. In December 1778 The British seized the city of Savannah, Georgia & later

Charleston, South Carolina.

3. Benedict Arnold turns traitor and tries to turn over West Point to the British

during Sept. 1780.

4. The Patriots captured King’s Mountain Oct. 7, 1780.

5. The British forces are defeated at the battle of the Cowpens in Jan. 1781

B. Victory at Last

British General Cornwallis is trapped at Yorktown by General Washington

and the French fleet under Admiral de Grasse. The British fleet could not

resupply the British soldiers forcing them to surrender.

C. Making Peace

1. After Yorktown British Prime Minister North declared “It is all over.”

2. The British were eager to end the war and gave the American

representatives Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and Henry Laurens.

3. The Treaty of Paris

a) recognized the United States as independent.

b) Its borders were from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Coast.

c) Florida was returned to Spain.

d) United States agreed to pay Loyalist claims for lost property (never did)

e) On April 15, 1783 Congress ratified this Treaty.


IV. The American Revolution

The World Turned Upside Down - THE COLONIES UNITE

D. Washington Farewell

1. A stronger, better trained, & better armed England was defeated with

French Help and the courage of American leaders.

2. In December 1783 George Washington bids farewell to his officers and

return to Mount Vernon, Virginia.


IV. The American Revolution

  • E. Test Paragraph (10 points)

    • There are many things that The English King George III and British

    • Parliament did that angered the colonists. In a well developed paragraph

    • explain what caused the English colonists to change from loyal subjects

    • of the English crown to rebels demanding independence. Be sure to indent

    • The topic sentence and after explaining all the laws and proclamations in your

    • paragraph’s body sentences conclude with a sentence rephraising the topic

    • Idea.


IV. The American Revolution

  • G. Matching Practice “Leaders”

    a. Captured Fort Ticonderoga

    b.Wrote the “Crisis” & “Common Sense”

    c. Hung as a traitor

    d. Surrendered at Yorktown

    e. Spanish Governor who helped the Patriots

    f. Wrote the Declaration of Independence

    g. Attempted to give West Point to the British

    h. Surrendered at Saratoga

    i. An Polish Engineer who helped build forts

    j. Ambassador to France

    k. Captain of Bonhomme Richard

    L. Lead the Continental Army

    m. Trained Cavalry

    n. Patriot leader who took Kasaskia & Cahokia

    o. Known as the Swamp Fox

    p. “Give me Liberty or give me death!”

    q. A French noble who brought trained soldiers

    r. Commanded the minutemen at Lexington

    s. Organized the Committee of Correspondence

    t. A Prussian who drilled troops on marching.

Nathan Hale

George Washington

Benedict Arnold

Thomas Paine

Thaddeus Kosciussko

General Burgoyne

Ethan Allen

Benjamin Franklin

Casimir Pulaski

Thomas Jefferson

Bernardo de Galvez

George Rogers Clark

John Paul Jones

General Cornwallis

General Francis Marion

Sam Adams

Captain John Parker

Patrick Henry

Friedrich von Steuben

Marquis de Lafayette


  • H. Matching Practice “Laws & Other Things”

    a. Punishment from Boston after the Boston Tea Party

    b. A plead for help for help after Valley Forge

    c. Ended Revolutionary War and recognized a independent United States

    d. Taxed wills, diplomas, marriage papers, newspapers, playing cards & more

    e. Declared Colonial separation from England

    f. Organization of people to write letters and pamphlets

    g. Taxed British goods such as glass, paint, paper, lead, & tea

    h. Provides soldiers housing, candles, bedding, & beverages

    i. Argued for the logical separation from England

    j. Allowed no settlement West of the Appalachian Mountains

    k. Declared loyalty to the English King and asked for the repeal Intolerable Acts

    L. Created a Grand Council to raise an army to fight the French & Indians

    m. Ended French & Indian War

    n. Allowed British custom officers to inspect without any reason

    o. Promises made to stop importing taxed goods

Treaty of Paris 1763

Stamp Act of 1765

Committee of Correspondence

Common Sense

Townshend Acts

Olive Branch Petitions

Proclamation of 1763

Declaration of Independence

9. Quartering Act

10. Intolerable Acts

11. The Crisis

12. The Albany Plan of Union

13. Nonimportation Agreements

14. Writs of Assistance

15. Treaty of Paris 1782



The Battle of Fort Ticonderoga - 1775 Ethan Allen leads the Green Mountain Boys

to seize the British cannons there.

Battles of Lexington & Concord - in 1775 the British marched to seize the Patriot’s

store of arms at Concord. The British find no arms and

are attacked as they return to Boston.

The Battle of Bunker Hill - In 1775 The British General Howe’s victory takes three

tries to over throw the American positions.

The Battle of Quebec - 1775 General Montgomery is killed and Benedict Arnold is

wounded. British reinforcement force the American

force to withdraw from Canada.

Battle of Long Island - 1776 General Howe forces Washington to retreat

The Battle of Trenton - 1776 in a surprise attack Washington captures Trenton.

The Battle of Brandywine & Germantown - 1777 General Howe captures

Philadelphia defeats the Patriots in these battles.

The Battle of Saratoga - (1777) British General Burgoyne surrenders.

Battle of Vincennes - 1778 George Rogers Clark breaks the British control of the

Ohio River valley by capturing Fort Vincennes.

Battle of Moore’s Creek Bridge - 1776 North Carolina Loyalist Army Defeated

Battle of the Cowpens - 1781 South Carolina General Morgan “hit & run tactics”

Battle of Yorktown - 1781 General Cornwallis is surrounded and force to


Treaty of Paris - ratified by Congress 4/15/1783 establishes American Independence

New france2


British Canada

United States

Quebec .

Montreal .

New Hampshire

New France

St. Lawrence River

. Boston


. Plymouth

Rocky Mountains

. Newport


. Perth Amboy

Rhode Island

. Philadelphia

. Baltimore

North America

New York

Appalachian Mts.

. Jamestown

. San Francisco

New Jersey

. Norfork

Mississippi River




. Los Angeles

. Charleston

. Savanna

. Natchez


St. Augustine .

. San Diego

New Orleans .


North Carolina

South Carolina



Gulf of Mexico

Atlantic Ocean


New Spain

Pacific Ocean

1783 C.E.