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The History of Medicine. Why study this?.

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why study this
Why study this?

Many things we practice and use in our profession come from things that we developed over the years. We learn from our past and improve our future by examining what works and what doesn’t. As discoveries happen, we adjust our beliefs and practices to be able to treat patients and animals more effectively.

example
Example:
  • Morphine
  • Powerful pain reliever
  • Comes from poppy plant
  • Still used today
ancient times
Ancient Times
  • Commonly belief that you got sick because you had evil spirits or demons in you.
  • Treatment focused around eliminating them.
  • Religious communities believed illness was a punishment for some type of sin and rites or ceremonies would help you get well.
ancient times1
Ancient Times
  • Study of the human body was very limited, because human dissection was not allowed.
  • Animals were dissected and studied instead.
egyptians 3000bc 300bc
Egyptians (3000BC-300BC)
  • First to record medical health records.
  • Wrote them on stone.
  • Limited because most people couldn’t read.
  • Priests still acted as physicians.
  • Medical schools were at the temples.
  • Believed your body was a system of channels for air, tears, blood, urine, sperms, and feces. Blood carried water and air. You got sick because a channel was clogged. Treatment focused around unclogging the channel. Heart pumpedthe channels.
  • Life span was about 20-30 years.
egyptians
Egyptians

Eye of Horus, represented as the falcon-headed god, was an important god in Egyptian legend. The symbol representing his eye, Eye of Horus, was a powerful symbol used to protect from evil.

Horus-Modern day Rx sign.

ancient chinese 1200bc 220ad
Ancient Chinese (1200BC-220AD)
  • Believed in need to treat the whole body by curing the spirit and nourishing the body.
  • Holistic-mind, body, spirit.
  • Acupuncture to relieve pain or congestion.
  • Moxibustion (a powdered substance that was place on the skin and then burned to cause a blister) to treat disease.
greeks 1200bc 200bc
Greeks (1200BC-200BC)
  • Began modern science by observing the human body and effects of disease.
  • Beliefs changed to illness results from natural causes not spirits, demons, or sins.
  • Therapies such as massage and herbs used to treat illness.
  • Stressed diet and cleanliness as a way to prevent disease.
  • Life span was about 25-35 years.
greeks
Greeks
  • Hippocrates (460-377 BC)
  • Called the “Father of Medicine”
  • Developed an organized method to study the human body (observation, diagnosis, and treatment).
  • Recorded signs and symptoms of many diseases.
  • High standard of ethics, the Oath of Hippocrates, used by physicians today.
greeks1
Greeks
  • Aristotle (384-322BC)
  • Dissected animals
  • Considered the founder of comparative anatomy
romans 753bc 410ad
Romans (753BC-410AD)
  • Realized that some disease was connected to filth, contaminated water, and poor sanitation.
  • Developed aqueducts (to deliver clean water) and sewers to carry away waste.
  • Drained swamps and marshes to decrease malaria.
  • Created laws to keep streets clean and eliminate garbage.
romans
Romans
  • First to organize medical care-used to treat soldiers.
  • First hospitals
  • Early hospitals-physicians cared for patients in the rooms of their homes.
  • Later hospitals were set up in monasteries or convents.
  • Life span was about 25-35 years.
romans1
Romans
  • Claudius Galen (129-199AD?)
  • A physician who established many medical beliefs.
  • One was that the body was regulated by four fluids or humors: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. (black bile-melancholic-brownish sediment with platelets;yellow bile-anger, residue in bilirubin from the liver).
  • An imbalance in the humors resulted in illness.
the dark ages 400 800ad
The Dark Ages (400-800AD)
  • After the fall of the Roman empire, the emphasis was placed on saving the soul and the study of medicine was prohibited.
  • Once again prayer and divine intervention were the treatment of choice.
  • Monks and priests provided care for sick people.
the middle ages 800 1400 ad
The Middle Ages (800-1400 AD)
  • Renewed interest in medical practices.
  • Monks translated the writings of the Greeks and Romans.
  • Medical universities were created and and began to train physicians how to use this information.
  • Arabs began requiring physicians pass examinations and obtain licenses.
  • Rhazes (al-Razi) became know as the Arab Hippocrates.
the middle ages
The Middle Ages
  • 1300’s major epidemic of the bubonic plague killed almost 75% of the population of Europe and Asia.
  • Other diseases like smallpox, diphtheria, tuberculosis, typhoid, and malaria killed many others.
  • Average life span was 20-35 years.
the renaissance 1350 1650 ad
The Renaissance (1350-1650 AD)
  • The “rebirth” of medicine.
  • Human dissection allowed and studied.
  • New major source of information about the human body.
  • Artists like da Vinci and Michelangelo were able to draw the body accurately.
  • Development of the printing press. First medical books came out. Knowledge spread.
  • Life span increased to 30-40 years.
16 th 17 th and 18 th centuries
16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries
  • Causes of disease still not known and many still died from infections or in child birth.
  • Ambroise Pare’ “Father of Modern Surgery” 1510-1590.
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope-1666.
  • Apothecaries (early pharmacists)
18 th century
18th Century
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit 1714-first mercury thermometer.
  • Benjamin Franklin invented bifocals.
  • Edward Jenner 1796-developed vaccine for smallpox.
  • Lifespan was about 40-50 years.
19 th century
19th Century
  • Industrial Revolution
  • First federal vaccination legislation 1813
  • First successful blood transfusion on human.
  • Rene’ Laennec invented the stethoscope.
  • Elizabeth Blackwell began the first female MD is the USA.
19th century
19th Century
  • Florence Nightingale-the founder of modern nursing.
  • She established efficient and sanitary nursing units.
  • Credited with beginning the professional education of nurses.
  • Joseph Lister-started using disinfectants and antiseptics during surgery to prevent infection.
19 th century1
19th Century

Clara Barton-founded the Red Cross.

Louis Pasteur-pasteurizing milk kill bacteria.

Average life span was 4o-60 years.

19 th century2
19th Century
  • Another major development during this time period was infection control. Physicians began to associate the tiny microorganisms seen in the microscope with disease. Methods to stop the spread of these diseases were developed.
20 th century
20th Century

Most rapid growth in health care.

Physicians were now able to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases and cure patients.

A major development was Francis Crick and James Watson discovery of DNA.

20th century
20th Century
  • Health care plans started to help pay for the cost of medical care.
  • Standards were created to make sure everyone had access to quality health care.
  • Life span 60-80 years.
20 th century highlights
20th Century Highlights
  • 1900 Walter Reed demonstrated that mosquitoes carry yellow fever.
  • 1901 Carl Landsteiner classified the ABO blood groups.
  • Sigmund Freud’s studies form the basis for psychology and psychiatry.
  • 1928 Sir Alexander Flemming discovers Penicillin.
  • 1944 First kidney dialysis machine.
20th century highlights
20th Century Highlights
  • 1952 Jonas Salk developed the polio vaccine.
  • 1953 First open heart surgery using first heart-lung machine.
  • 1965 Medicare and Medicaid.
  • 1978 First test tube baby born.
  • 1981 HIV was identified.
  • 1996 HIPPA
  • 1997 Sheep Cloned
21 st century
21st Century
  • Stem cells
  • Human Genome Project (20-25,000 genes identified)
  • Face transplant 2005
  • Gardasil 2006
future
Future
  • Cure for AIDS, cancer, and heart disease.
  • Antibiotics that don’t develop resistance.
  • Nerves that can be regenerated.