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The History of Medicine. Early beginnings. Very limited - no electricity, few tools, poor shelter Mainly concerned with predators and shelter Superstitious  illness and disease came from supernatural spirits *exorcism the ritual believed to force out evil spirits

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early beginnings
Early beginnings

Very limited

- no electricity, few tools, poor shelter

Mainly concerned with predators and shelter

Superstitious illness and disease came from supernatural spirits

*exorcism the ritual believed to force out evil spirits

Used plants and herbs as medicines

- Digitalis, Quinine, Belladonna, Morphine

ancient times egyptians
Ancient Times : Egyptians

Earliest to keep accurate health records

Superstitious – called upon Gods to heal

them

Learned to identify diseases

Learned to art of splinting fractures

ancient times greeks
Ancient Times: Greeks
  • First to study cause of disease
  • Understood the importance of searching for new info on diseases which helped eliminate superstition
  • Did not believe in dissection
  • Hippocrates: the father of medicine
    • Based his knowledge of anatomy and physiology on observation of the external body
    • Oath of Hippocrates or………….
video of the hippocratic oath
Video of the Hippocratic Oath

Upstate medical University reciting the oath at graduation ceremonies

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sszCPQJoeKU&feature=related

hippocratic oath
Hippocratic Oath

I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment and never do harm to anyone.

I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a plan; and similarly I will not give a woman a pessary to cause an abortion.

But I will preserve the purity of my life and my arts.

I will not cut for stone, even for patients in whom the disease is manifest; I will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners, specialists in this art.

In every house where I come I will enter only for the good of my patients, keeping myself far from all intentional ill-doing and all seduction and especially from the pleasures of love with women or with men, be they free or slaves.

All that may come to my knowledge in the exercise of my profession or in daily commerce with men, which ought not to be spread abroad, I will keep secret and will never reveal.

If I keep this oath faithfully, may I enjoy my life and practice my art, respected by all men and in all times; but if I swerve from it or violate it, may the reverse be my lot.

ancient times romans
Ancient Times: Romans

Learned from the Greeks to develop a sanitation system – brought in water to the city through aqueducts and built sewers to remove waste. Also built public baths with filtering systems

First to organize medical care

Beginning of hospitals

dark and middle ages
Dark and Middle Ages
  • Practice of Medicine stopped for 1,ooo years
  • Believed that life and death was in God’s hands
  • Medicine only practiced in convents and monasteries
  • Epidemics caused millions of deaths
    • Bubonic plague
    • Small pox
    • Diphtheria
    • Tuberculosis
renaissance
Renaissance
  • New scientific progress began:
    • Universities and Medical Schools
    • Search for new ideas about disease
    • Acceptance of dissection of the body
        • Dissection  process of dividing, taking apart
  • Printing Press and publishing of books allow great access to knowledge from research
16 th and 17 th centuries
16th and 17th Centuries
  • Leonardo da Vinci
    • Studied and

recorded anatomy

of the human body

    • Vitruvian Man
16 th and 17 th centuries1
16th and 17th Centuries
  • William Harvey
    • Described the circulation of blood and pumping of the heart
  • Gabriele Fallopius
    • Fallopian tubes in the female anatomy
  • Bartolomeo Eustachio
    • Eustachian tube, tube leading from the ear to the throat
  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    • Microscope
18 th century
18th Century
  • New ways of learning
    • Lectures, labs, and observed patients at their bedside
  • Rene` Laenneuc
    • Stethoscope
  • Joseph Priestley
    • Oxygen, plants refresh air that has lost oxygen making it usable for resipration
18 th century1
18th Century
  • Benjamin Franklin
    • Bifocals, electricity, stove, urinary catheter
  • Edward Jenner
    • Smallpox vaccine

Lead to immunizations and preventative medicine in public health

19 th century
19th Century
  • IgnazSemmelweis
    • Proved that diseases could be transmitted from the dead to the living on the hands and aprons of doctors and nurses (childbed fever)
  • Louis Pasteur
    • Discovered microorganisms and that they cause disease
    • Pasteurization of milk
  • Joseph Lister
    • Discovered antiseptic  substance that slows or stops the growth of microorganisms to help prevent infection
19 th century1
19th Century
  • Ernst von Bergmann
    • Asepsis  sterile conditions
  • Robert Koch
    • Father of microbiology
    • Importance of cleanliness and sanitation in preventing the spread of disease
  • Wilhelm Roentgen
    • X-rays
  • Paul Ehrlich
    • Use of chemicals to fight disease
19 th century2
19th Century
  • Anesthesia  loss of feeling or sensation
    • Before many people died of shock and pain
    • Nitrous oxide, ether, and chloroform early forms
    • These drugs put patients into a deep sleep so they do not experience pain
    • Basis of safe, painless surgery today
19 th century3
19th Century
  • Gerhard Domagk
    • Suflanomidecompounds – used for killing bacteria
  • Dmitri Ivanoski
    • Viruses: polio, rabies, measles, flu, chicken pox
  • Sigmund Freud
    • Conscious and unconscious mind, mind and body work together
    • Psychosomatic illness – physical illness caused by emotional conflict.
  • Alexander Fleming
    • Penicillin
  • Jonas Salk
    • Dead polio vaccine
  • Albert Sabin
    • Live polio vaccine
nursing
Nursing
  • Florence Nightingale
    • Began the first school of nursing
  • Clara Barton
    • Founded the American Red Cross
20 th century and the future
20th Century and the Future

Possibility of eliminating disabling disease through genetic research

Ability to transplant organs from a donor to a recipient

Ability to reattach severed body parts

Use of computers to aid in diagnosis, accurate record keeping, and research

Ability to use noninvasive techniques for diagnosis

Advancement of caring for the unborn fetus

Greater acceptance of alternative medicine

Hope for cures for diabetes, cancer, AIDS…