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US History II Final Exam Review Sheet

US History II Final Exam Review Sheet

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US History II Final Exam Review Sheet

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  1. US History II Final Exam Review Sheet Happy Summer!

  2. Chapter 13 After the Civil War, a dynamic period in American history opened – the settlement of the West. The lives of Western miners, farmers and ranchers were often filled with great hardships, but the wave of American settlers continued. Railroads hastened this migration. During this period, many Native Americans lost their homelands and their way of life.

  3. Dawes Act • Broke up parts of reservations (allotments) into individual plots • Native Americans would live there with their families and support themselves • Was a failure • Few Native Americans knew how to farm/ranch to make money

  4. Buffalo • Used by Native Americans • Used all parts of the buffalo • Crucial to their survival • Rapidly disappearing • Killed by: migrants, professional buffalo hunters, sportsmen

  5. Eugenics • The idea that one race was superior to another • Natural selection is applied to race • Fitter families • Immigration policy • Led to quota laws • Led to discrimination against immigrants • Nativism

  6. Chapter 14 The rise of the US as an industrial power began after the Civil War. Many factors promoted industry, including cheap labor, new inventions and technology, and plentiful raw materials. Railroads rapidly expanded. Government policies encouraged growth, and large corporations became an important part of the economy. As industry expanded, workers tried to form unions and fight for better wages and working conditions.

  7. Transcontinental Railroad • Government encouraged the rapid construction of the tracks • Land Grant • Union Pacific and the Central Pacific • Effects of RRs on the Native Americans • Buffalo • Land disappearing • More interaction with whites -> normal schools, reservations

  8. Economies of Scale • Corporations make goods more cheaply because they produce so much so quickly in large manufacturing facilities

  9. Horizontal Organization • Combining of many firms engaged in the same type of business into one large corporation • Took place when companies competed • Companies who were failing would sell out to competitors to create a larger organization

  10. Vertical Organization • When a company owns all the different businesses on which it depends for its corporation • Enabled bigger companies to get even bigger

  11. Lockout • When workers were locked out of their places of work and refused pay • This usually happened when workers formed a union

  12. Chapter 15 European and Asian immigrants arrived in the US in great numbers during the late 1800s. Providing cheap labor, they made rapid industrial growth possible. They also helped populate the growing cities. The immigrants’ presence affected both urban politics and labor unions. Reactions to immigrants and to an urban society were reflected in new political organizations and in literature and philosophy.

  13. Most immigrants were from... • Eastern and Southern Europe • Rural farms • They came here looking for the new jobs that industry in the US had created • Wanted to break away from Europe’s class system and move to a democratic nation

  14. Unions’ view of immigrants • Did not like them • Thought that they would work for lower wages • This would hurt what unions were looking to do

  15. William Tweed • Corrupt party boss in a political machine • Political machine – informal political group that wanted to keep power • Tammany Hall – his political machine

  16. Social Darwinism • Sprung from Darwin’s idea of natural selection • Presented by Herbert Spencer • Said that human society evolved through competition • The fittest people would survive

  17. Saloons • Functioned as a community and political center for men in cities • Free toilets, water for horses, newspapers, and free lunch

  18. Nativists • Wanted to limit immigration • Believed in the theory of eugenics and social Darwinism

  19. Tammany Hall • Corrupt political machine • Led by Tweed

  20. Political Machines • Informal political group • Wanted to keep power • Happened because cities were growing faster than their governments • Provided people with things that they needed in exchange for votes • Led by party bosses

  21. Salvation Army • Social welfare organization • Offered practical aid and religious counseling to the urban poor

  22. The Gilded Age • Covered in gold on the outside – but on the inside made of a cheaper material • Things may look good on the surface – but underneath there is corruption

  23. Population growth in cities • Urbanization • Hoped for better paying jobs • Immigrants settle there to look for jobs • Lights, running water, modern plumbing • Entertainment • Libraries

  24. Conditions in the cities • Tenement houses • Dark, multi-family apartments • Crime • Violence • Fire • Disease • {Pollution • Immigrants were blamed for many of these problems

  25. Settlement Houses • Jane Addams • Wanted to improve conditions for the poor • Middle class residents lived there and helped poor residents (usually immigrants) • Medical care, recreation, English classes • Hull House

  26. Chapter 16 During this period, political parties often focused on party competition rather than on important issues. Rural Americans were suffering economically, and they began to organize to obtain relief. Many states passed laws segregating African Americans and limiting their voting rights.

  27. Civil Rights Act of 1875 • guaranteed that everyone was entitled to the same treatment in public • Was rarely followed • Overturned to legalize segregation

  28. Sherman Anti-Trust Act • Made to limit the power of trusts • Trusts = large combinations of companies that dominated certain markets • Made it illegal to combine into a trust in restraint of trade or commerce among states • Courts were responsible for enforcing it – judges didn’t see anything that said that companies had to change the way they did business

  29. Segregation in the North/South • South • Enforced by law = Jim Crow laws • Passed laws that enforced segregation in all public places • Plessy v. Ferguson – upheld the idea of separate but equal • Lynching • North • There was segregation – but no laws enforcing segregation

  30. Ida Wells • Led a crusade against lynching • Exposed that it was not just racism that that was behind lynching • Exposed that African Americans were being lynched because they successfully competed against white grocers – this lynching had nothing to do with racism

  31. Plessy vs. Ferguson • Upheld the Louisiana law that said: that blacks had to ride in a separate car than whites • Enforced the idea of “separate but equal”

  32. Populism • Movement meant to increase farmers’ political power • Worked to pass legislation to help farmers • Silver standard

  33. Chapter 17 During this era, economic and military competition from world powers convinced the US it must be a world power. The United States became an empire when it acquired the Philippines and territory in the Caribbean. American influence in Central and South America grew as the US took a more active role in Latin American Countries.

  34. The Platt Amendment • Said that: • Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that would weaken its independence or allow another foreign power to gain territory in Cuba • Cuba had to allow the US to buy/lease naval stations • Cuba’s debts had to be kept low to prevent other nations from sending troops to Cuba • The US would have the right to intervene in Cuba to protect Cuban independence and order • Cuba is forced to accept this amendment • Made Cuba a protectorate of the US

  35. Arguments of Imperialists • Wanted to make the US a world power • Economic and military competition with other countries made the US interested in gaining territory • Feeling that the US is culturally superiority • New markets

  36. Arguments of Anti-Imperialists • Inconsistent with American principles of democracy, popular sovereignty and independence • The US was acting unfairly toward the citizens of other nations by controlling them as an outside force

  37. Chapter 18 Industrialization changed American society. Cities were crowded with new immigrants, working conditions were bad, and the old political system was breaking down. These conditions were often bad, and the old political system was breaking down. These conditions gave rise to the Progressive movement. Progressives campaigned for both political and social reforms for more than two decades and enjoyed significant successes at the local, state and national levels.

  38. Alice Paul • Quaker • Social worker • Organized the march on Washington for women’s suffrage • Used protests to force suffrage • Formed the National Woman’s Party

  39. Roosevelt’s view of Taft • Felt like Taft failed to be a true progressive • Didn’t make enough change fast enough

  40. Bias against women • Right to vote • Supposed to be feminine and moral

  41. Chapter 19 The US reluctantly entered WWI after German submarines violated American neutrality. After the war ended, President Wilson supported the Treaty of Versailles, believing its terms would prevent another war. The US senate however, rejected the treaty. It did not want the country to be tied to European obligations. Instead , Americans turned their attention to the difficult adjustment to peacetime.

  42. Triple Entente • Britain, France, Russia • Alliance

  43. Schenck vs. the United States • Supreme Court ruled that an individual’s freedom of speech could be curbed when the words uttered present a “clear and present danger”

  44. Spark of WWI • Balkan powder keg • Many countries wanted to maintain their independence and saw Austria-Hungary as their main threat • When the archduke from Austria traveled into the Balkans – he was assassinated – this sparked WWI

  45. Great Migration • African Americans left the South and moved North in search of wartime jobs

  46. Triple Alliance • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • Alliance

  47. Zimmerman Telegram • Telegram sent from Germany to Mexico encouraging an alliance • Germany promised that if Mexico joined the war on their side – they would get the land back that they lost to the US (Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona)

  48. Espionage and Sedition Act • Espionage Act: • Established penalties and prison terms for spies • Sedition Act: • Made it illegal to publicly oppose the war • Allowed officials to prosecute anyone who criticized the president or the government

  49. How did Public Opinion affect WWI • Propaganda that supported the Allies • Pro-British sentiment • Economically supported the British • Committee on Public Information – sold the war to the people

  50. Chapter 20 The 1920s was an era of rapid change and clashing values. Many Americans believed society was losing its traditional values, and they took action to preserve these values. Other Americans embraced new values associated with a freer lifestyle and the pursuit of individual goals. Writers and artists pursued distinctively American themes, and the Harlem Renaissance gave African Americans new pride.