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  1. Seeing Clearly Through Ink in Computer Science Courses Roy P. Pargas Clemson University PLT 2007, Catania, Italy 24 May 2007

  2. Where in the World isClemson University? PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  3. Where is Clemson University? PLT 2007, Catania, Italy Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  4. Overview • MessageGrid • Web-based software tool to help promote interactivity in the classroom PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  5. Overview • MessageGrid • Clemson laptop mandate • Proposed Solution • Features • Grid, Clickers, Ink, Mobile, Evaluating Online Discussions • Current and Future Work • Acknowledgements PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  6. 2002 Clemson Laptop Mandate • Every student is required to have a laptop computer with wireless access to the Internet PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  7. The Challenge • How can instructors use the laptop computers to advantage in and out of the classroom? PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  8. Our Solution: MessageGrid • Web-based • Basic grid: rows and columns • Instructor designs grid • Students post original submissions or replies to submissions • Anything displayed by a browser • Text, image, audio, video, animation, Ink, maps • Why use such a tool? • Student responses to in-class exercises, presentations, online discussions, student questions, feedback from students, … PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  9. Gaining Popularity • Current Users: • English, Psychology, Nursing, Languages, Chemistry, Freshman Engineering, Mathematics, Performing Arts, Computer Science, Mechanical Engineering • Uses: • Recitation, reading assignment, collaborative writing, in-class exercises, PowerPoint presentation review, team project collaboration, faculty meetings PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  10. Evolution Every semester since January 2004, more instructors use MessageGrid At semester’s end, instructors discuss possible improvements Suggestions with most instructor support are implemented PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  11. Current MessageGrid Features PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  12. Current MessageGrid Features Message Grid PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  13. Current MessageGrid Features Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students Message Grid PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  14. Current MessageGrid Features Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students Message Grid Clickers: Assessment/Polling PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  15. Current MessageGrid Features Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students Message Grid Clickers: Assessment/Polling Ink: Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  16. Current MessageGrid Features Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students Message Grid Clickers: Assessment/Polling Mobile: Images, video, audio, GPS, and text in a portable, handheld grid Ink: Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  17. Current MessageGrid Features Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students Message Grid Discussion: Rubric to facilitate evaluation of online discussions Clickers: Assessment/Polling Mobile: Images, video, audio, GPS, and text in a portable, handheld grid Ink: Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  18. Current MessageGrid Features Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students (FIE 2005, ITiCSE 2006) New! Message Grid Discussion: Rubric to facilitate evaluation of online discussions Clickers: Assessment/Polling (SIGCSE 2006) New! Mobile: Images, video, audio, GPS, and text in a portable, handheld grid Ink: Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text (PLT 2007) PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  19. Current MessageGrid Features FOCUS Message Grid Ink: Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text (PLT 2007) PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  20. MessageGrid Ink • Students with Tablet PCs or WACOM Graphire Tablets can submit Ink answers to questions PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  21. MessageGrid Ink PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  22. MessageGrid Ink PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  23. MessageGrid Ink PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  24. Classroom Experiment • CPSC 212: Data Structures and Algorithms • Fall 2006 • 26 students • Sophomore/Junior level • Computer Science, Math, Science Majors PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  25. Classroom Experiment • CPSC 212: Data Structures and Algorithms • Fall 2006 • 26 students • Sophomore/Junior level • Computer Science, Math, Science Majors • WACOM Graphire Tablets PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  26. Using WACOM Graphire Tablets Today, not many Clemson students have Tablet PCs WACOM Graphire tablets provided at start of each class PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  27. Classroom Experiment • Much research on active vs. passive learning • Reduced lecture and active learning • Theory: learning is best achieved when students actively participate in learning process PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  28. Classroom Experiment • Much research on active vs. passive learning • Reduced lecture and active learning • Theory: learning is best achieved when students actively participate in learning process • Suggested to promote active learning • Collaborative activities after brief lecture • Anonymous quizzes at end of activity period • Team-answered test questions PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  29. Classroom Experiment • Modified course lecture/lab structure • Four types of in-class exercises • Mathematics Review • Data Structure Behavior • Code Development • Analysis of Algorithms PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  30. Mathematics Review • First week of semester, variety of exercises • Some answers were keyed, others Inked PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  31. Mathematics Review • First week of semester, variety of exercises • Some answers were keyed, others Inked PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  32. Data Structure Behavior • Example: Enter the following values into a binary search tree: 6, 9, 13, 8, 5, 7, … • Some answers keyed, others Inked PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  33. Data Structure Behavior • Example: Enter the following values into a binary search tree: 6, 9, 13, 8, 5, 7, … • Some answers keyed, others Inked PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  34. Code Development • Key a recursive method that counts the leaves of a binary tree • Ink a recursive algorithm that counts the number of nodes with exactly one child PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  35. Code Development • Key a recursive method that counts the leaves of a binary tree • Ink a recursive algorithm that counts the number of nodes with exactly one child PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  36. Analysis of Algorithms • Analyze the Tower of Hanoi problem • Had not yet covered Proof by Induction • Students allowed to key or Ink answers (about 1/3 used Ink) PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  37. Analysis of Algorithms • Analyze the Tower of Hanoi problem • Had not yet covered Proof by Induction • Students allowed to key or Ink answers (about 1/3 used Ink) PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  38. Assessment: Preferences (Inking vs. Keying) PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  39. Assessment: Preferences (Class Format) PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  40. Preferred Percentage for Lecture PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  41. Ease of Use PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  42. Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses • Tablet PC-Enabled Active Learning in Mathematics: A First Study • Presentation by Marilyn Reba and Barbara Weaver at 4:30 pm today PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  43. Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  44. Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  45. Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  46. Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  47. Current / Future Work PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  48. Current / Future Work Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students (FIE 2005, ITiCSE 2006) New! Message Grid Discussion: Rubric to facilitate evaluation of online discussions Clickers: Assessment/Polling (SIGCSE 2006) New! Mobile: Images, video, audio, GPS, and text in a portable, handheld grid Ink: Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text (PLT 2007) PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  49. Current / Future Work • Refine MessageGrid Mobile • Refine MessageGrid Discussion • Support Mathematics (Algebra and Calculus) use of MessageGrid Ink • Provide access to MessageGrid to limited number of non-Clemson faculty • If interested, please contact Roy Pargas, pargas@clemson.edu PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

  50. Acknowledgments 2003-2007 (continuing) faculty fellowship grant from Clemson University ETS-OTEI Laptop Faculty Development Program 2003 Microsoft Content and Curriculum Development Grant (Tom Healy, Mgr.) 2005 Microsoft Research Tablet PC and Computing Curriculum Grant (Jane Prey, Mgr.) PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy