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  1. Prentice HallPoliticalScienceInteractive Magleby et al. Government by the People Chapter 2 The Living Constitution

  2. Federalists Weaker state governments Indirect election Longer terms Government by the elite Not concerned about individual liberties Anti-Federalists Strong state governments Direct election Short terms of office Government by common man Strong protections of individual liberties Ratifying the Constitution

  3. Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances

  4. Modifications of Checks and Balances • The rise of national political parties • Expansion of the electorate and the move toward more direct democracy • Establishment of agencies deliberately designed to exercise legislative, executive, and judicial functions • Changes in technology • The growth of presidential power

  5. Modifications of Checks and Balances Direct Primary Election in which voters choose party nominees Initiative Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters Recall Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officers from office before the end of their term Referendum Procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution

  6. The European Union

  7. Origins of Judicial Review Whether the delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 intended to give the courts the power of judicial review is a long debated question

  8. Marbury versus Madison • John Marshall sworn in as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court through a “midnight appointment” of President Adams in 1801 • Jefferson refuses to deliver other commissions • Marbury v. Madison • Constitution is the supreme and binding law

  9. The Civil Rights Movement and Justice Thurgood Marshall • Leader in the civil rights movement in the 1940s and 1950s • In 1953, the Supreme Court heard the case of Brown v. Board of Education, argued by NAACP attorney, Thurgood Marshall

  10. The Unwritten Constitution Two U.S. Presidents, Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton, have been impeached by the U.S. House of Representatives. Nixon resigned before impeachment.

  11. Presidential Practices Executive Order Executive Privilege Impoundment

  12. The Amending Power and How it Has Been Used

  13. Proposing Amendments

  14. Ratifying Amendments The Time for Ratification of the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

  15. Ratification Politics: The ERA • First introduced in 1923 • Endorsed by every president from Harry Truman to Ronald Reagan

  16. Gregory Watson • Student at University of Texas • Worked for the ratification of an amendment proposed in 1789 as part of the Bill of Rights • prohibited a pay raise for members of Congress until the intervention of an election for members of the house