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Prentice Hall PoliticalScience Interactive. Thomas R. Dye Politics in America Special Topic Chapter15 Affirmative Action. Slavery and Its Legacy.

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Prentice hall politicalscience interactive

Prentice HallPoliticalScienceInteractive

Thomas R. Dye

Politics in America

Special Topic


Affirmative Action

Slavery and its legacy
Slavery and Its Legacy

Race-based slavery and the years of racial discrimination that followed laid the foundation for contemporary racial disparities in wealth, education, housing patterns and employment opportunities

Slavery and its legacy1
Slavery and Its Legacy

  • Freed slaves and their descendents had no accumulated or inherited assets

  • Because of the visibility of their skin color, African Americans were easy to exclude from institutions dominated by whites

Gender equality in the economy
Gender Equality in the Economy

The Earnings Gap: Median Weekly Earnings of Men and Women

Gender equality in the economy1
Gender Equality in the Economy

Gender Differentiation in the Labor Market


Latinos have suffered discrimination in housing, employment, public accommodations, education and have faced harsh treatment from police and other government officials

Cesar Chavez founded the National Farm Workers Association to organize Latinos

Asian americans
Asian Americans

“Asian-Americans…face widespread prejudice, discrimination and barriers to equal opportunity”

-U.S. Civil Rights Commission

A WWII Japanese Internment Camp

The ideal of equality
The Ideal of Equality

The drive for civil rights focused on

  • Equal access to voting

  • Prohibition of certain forms of “categorical discrimination”

Categorical discrimination

Exclusion, by reason of race, gender, or disability, from public education, employment, housing and public accommodations

Equality and equal rights
Equality and Equal Rights

Equality of Opportunity

Equality of Starting Conditions

Equality Between Groups

Equality of Results

Equality and equal rights1
Equality and Equal Rights

Equality of Condition

The government takes direct action to reduce economic disparities between citizens

Equality of Opportunity

The government seeks to eliminate some discriminatory barriers to education, employment, and public accommodation

Affirmative action
Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action

Remedial preferences provided to people in university admissions, employment, and government contracts

Affirmative Action is called reverse discriminationby opponents

Public opinion
Public Opinion

49 percent of white respondents think that affirmative action has gone too far, while 79 percent of minority respondents think that it is still needed.

What are some of the consequences that these polarized views can result in?

Affirmative action in the higher education
Affirmative Action in the Higher Education

  • How does affirmative action in universities differ from other preferential criteria in admissions?

  • University of California v. Bakke (1978) was one of the earliest challenges to affirmative action in the university

Affirmative action in higher education
Affirmative Action in Higher Education

  • Diversity and Affirmative Action

  • Diversity as a Constitutional Question

  • Race-Neutral Approaches to Diversity

Protest over Florida Governor Jeb Bush’s effort to ban racial preferences in university admissions and state contracting

Affirmative action in higher education1
Affirmative Action in Higher Education

Barbara Grutter (left) was the unsuccessful plaintiff in Grutter v. Bollinger

Jennifer Gratz (right) was the successful plaintiff in Gratz v Bollinger.

The affirmative action controversy
The Affirmative Action Controversy

  • Richmond v. Croson (1989)

  • California’s Proposition 209

Affirmative racial gerrymandering
Affirmative Racial Gerrymandering

Following the 1990 census, the Department of Justice pressed southern legislatures to draw as many districts as possible in which minorities would constitute a majority of the electorate

Affirmative Racial Gerrymandering in North Carolina