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HANDWRITING ! LET'S GET READY!. Fine Motor Principals. Stability before mobility A. body B. furniture Sensory supports Motor Proximal to Distal (large to small) Palm to finger Hands used together Hands used separately Developmentally ready!. Birth to 3 months.

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fine motor principals
Fine Motor Principals

Stability before mobility

A. body

B. furniture

Sensory supports Motor

Proximal to Distal (large to small)

Palm to finger

Hands used together

Hands used separately

Developmentally ready!

two years to two a half
TWO YEARS TO TWO & A HALF

6-9 Block tower

Catches small ball

Moves individual fingers

Turns door knob

Unscrews lid

Two Year olds do not have perfect controlled release of their fingers.

three year old
THREE YEAR OLD

Copies a circle

Imitates a square

Threads large beads

Unbuttons large buttons/unzips

Uses glue with supervision

Cuts straight line

Feeds self

Build tower of 10 blocks

Doesn’t have hand muscles developed enough to write name

four year olds
FOUR YEAR OLDS

Cuts out 2 to 3 inch shapes

Copies square/triangle

Makes marks to represent name

Strings small beads

Uses static tripod grasp

Uses finger to act out simple songs

Puts together simple puzzles

five year olds
FIVE YEAR OLDS

Draw a person with facial features

Builds steps with blocks

Uses tools with little supervision

Draws specific objects: may look different

Write first name and few letters

May have letter/number reversals and letters not in straight line

Uses scissors to cut non paper materials

common handwriting problems associated with fine motor weaknesses
COMMON HANDWRITING PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH FINE MOTOR WEAKNESSES
  • Child may have an awkward pencil grip.
  • Child may have difficulty coloring within lines, tracing, and forming letters.
  • Hand movements may appear awkward.
red flags
RED FLAGS

Child:

  • Keeps arms very close to chest during hand activities
  • Keeps shoulders “hiked” near ears
  • Difficulty using two hands together for activities such as catching a ball rolled to them, rolling out playdough, using scissors, dressing activities
  • Gets tired easily: endurance is reduced for age
  • Complains of hand fatigue or pain consistently
  • Is frustrated with writing, cutting, etc.
  • Consistently avoids messiness.
  • Hand dominance set since early months
things to remember
THINGS TO REMEMBER

Look for activities that support:

  • SHAPING THE HANDS
  • USE OF THE INDEX FINGER
  • USE OF THE THUMB +2
  • VERTICAL PLAY WITH THE HANDS:
  • wrist up
  • IN HAND MOVEMENT
sensory makes it work
SENSORY MAKES IT WORK
  • Tactile Perception: Touch
  • Proprioception: Pressure
  • Vestibular: Movement
  • Visual: Seeing
visual physical perceptual
VISUAL PHYSICAL & PERCEPTUAL
  • Physical Visual:

Gives us information concerning our

movement and position. Must be

integrated with proprioceptive information for reaching.

  • Perceptual Visual:

Enables us to see details,

spatial orientation of objects,

visualize, similarities and differences.

common problems and modifications associated with visual spatial awareness weaknesses
COMMON PROBLEMS AND MODIFICATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH VISUAL SPATIAL AWARENESS WEAKNESSES

Child may have difficulty :

  • With puzzles/parquetry blocks which may lead to avoidance.
  • Drawing simple pictures: He may not “picture” how they look
  • Visualizing the shape/letter/number formations
  • Placing letters on or between the lines correctly at correct age
  • Spacing between words or letters (age appropriate)
  • Difficulty with reversals of letters and numbers after taught repeatedly and correctly (age appropriate)
  • Difficulty forming rounded letters: letters may be flat on the bottom if he is distracted by the printed lines
  • ALWAYS CONSIDER AGE APPROPRIATENESS !!!!
red flags1
RED FLAGS

Child who:

  • Consistently tilts head to one side
  • Covers one eye with hand or by laying head down on table
  • Does not follow people or objects with eyes
  • Avoids visual perceptual items such as puzzles, block patterns
  • Poor eye contact
  • Immature drawing abilities
things to remember1
THINGS TO REMEMBER
  • ENCOURAGE TRACKING THROUGH PLAY
  • EYE EXAM
  • BODY TO 3D TO 2D
  • UNCLUTTER AND UNLOAD
  • VISUALIZE
  • ART AND MATH
tactile system
TACTILE SYSTEM *

Touch

Discriminatory:

Ability to tell what an object is based on touch alone

Protective:

Ability to automatically withdraw or defend the body from harm.

A balance is needed between the ability to discriminate something by touch and the protective response.

For writing to become automatic, it needs to be felt through the sense of touch and sense of finger movement

proprioception
PROPRIOCEPTION

The proprioceptive system receptors are located primarily around and in our joints, and in our muscles and tendons.

They tell us about:

Movement of our body against itself

Movement of our body in relationship to itself: body awareness

vestibular
VESTIBULAR

Influences

Eye movement control

Balance

Muscle tone

Postural control

Bilateral coordination

Motor planning

Activities

Infants: Gentle swinging, being carried, Johnny Jump Ups (feet flat on floor)

Toddlers: Swinging, climbing, sliding

Preschoolers: Playground activity, musical games

WARNING: Vestibular very powerful

sensory processing red flags
Sensory Processing: Red Flags
  • Sensory Avoider
  • Sensory Under Responder
  • Sensory Craver
things to remember2
THINGS TO REMEMBER
  • SENSORY ALERT
  • BIGGER IS BETTER
  • EYES CLOSED
  • MAKE IT AUTOMATIC
slide29

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