PGT 201/EINSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY PRACTICES PRESENTERS NOOR EFFELIANA MUHD EFFENDI (94837) RAHIMAH MOHD SALLEH () SITI NOR HASMAH AB. RAHMAN (94911) Tutorial : Monday, 9-10 a.m.
LESSON PLAN Date : 2nd September 2008 Form : Six Times : 80 minutes Number of Students : 20 students Topic : Climate Subtopic : (a) Definition of Climate (b) Climate Classification (c) Climate Change Factor Main Objective : Student will learn about definition of climate, climate clssification and about climate change factor. Specific Objective :- At the end of this lesson, students should be able to :- i) Estimate about climate ii) Explain the difference between climate and weather iii)Communicate abaout the climate classification and abaout climate change factor
Climate is defined as the weather averaged over a long period of time. The standard averaging period is 30 years, but other periods may be used depending on the purpose. Climate also includes statistics other than the average, such as the magnitudes of day-to-day or year-to-year variations.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) glossary definition is :- - Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the“average weather”, or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.
The difference between climate and weather is usefully summarized by the popular phrase "Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get.“ • "Over historical time spans there are a number of static variables that determine climate, including latitude, altitude, proportion of land to water, and proximity to oceans and mountains. • Other climate determinants are more dynamic: for example, the thermohaline circulation of the ocean leads to a 5 °C (9 °F) warming of the northern Atlantic ocean compared to other ocean basins.Other ocean currents redistribute heat between land and water on a more regional scale.
The Koppens clasification include Climateregims such as : • Rain Forest • monsoon • Tropical • Tropical savanna • Humid subtropical • Humid continental • Oceanic • Mediterranean • tundra
RAIN FOREST Rain forests are characterized by high rainfall, with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1,750 millimetres (69 in) and 2,000 millimetres (79 in). Mean monthly temperatures exceed 18 °C (64 °F) during all months of the year.
MONSOON • A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months, ushering in a region's rainy season. • Regions such as within North America, South America. Sub-Saharan Africa, Australia and East Asia to qualify as monsoon regimes.
A tropical climate is a kind of climate typical in the tropics. Köppen's widely-recognized scheme of climate classification defines it as a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures above 18°C (64.4°F). Climate Tropical
Naples beach in Florida lined with coconnut trees is an example of a tropical climate. Although it lies in the subtropics over a hundred miles north of the tropic of cancer, the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico give it a monthly mean temperature never under 65°F, classifying its climate as tropical.
Noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead
Tropical seasons and climate • The seasons in the tropics are dominated by the movement of the tropical rain belt (or ITCZ), which oscillates from the northern to the southern tropics over the course of the year, thus causing the dry season and the wet season in turn.
TROPICAL SAVANA A tropical savanna is a grassland biomelocated in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes, with average temperatures remain at or above 18 °C (64 °F) year round and rainfall between 750 millimetres (30 in) and 1,270 millimetres (50 in) a year. They are widespread on Africa, and are also found in India, the northern parts of South America, Malaysia, and Australia.
HUMID SUBTROICAL The humid subtropical climate zone where winter rainfall (and sometimes snowfall) is associated with large storms that the westerlies steer from west to east. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and from occasional tropical cyclones. Humid subtropical climates lie on the east side continents, roughly between latitudes 20° and 40° degress away from the equator.
HUMID CONTINENTAL Humid continental climate is marked by variable weather patterns and a large seasonal temperature variance. Places with a hottest monthly temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) and a coldest month temperature below −3 °C (26.6 °F) and which do not meet the criteria for an arid climate, are classified as continental.
OCEANIC CLIMATE An oceanic climate is typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the world's continents, and in southeastern Australia, and is accompanied by plentiful precipitation year round.
MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE The Mediterranean climate regime resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, parts of western North America, parts of Western and South Australia, in southwestern South Africa and in parts of central Chile. The climate is characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters.
STEPPE A steppe is a dry grassland with an annual temperature range in the summer of up to 40 °C (104 °F) and during the winter down to −40 °C (−40.0 °F).
TUNDRA Tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt, including vast areas of northern Russia and Canada.
Human influences on climate change • Anthropogenic factors are human activities that change the environment and influence climate. In some cases the chain of causality is direct and unambiguous (e.g., by the effects of irrigation on temperature and humidity), while in others it is less clear. • Various hypotheses for human-induced climate change have been debated for many years, though it is important to note that the scientific debate has moved on from scepticism, as there is scientific consensus on climate change that human activity is beyond reasonable doubt as the main explanation for the current rapid changes in the world's climate.
Consequently in politics, the debate has largely shifted onto ways to reduce human impact and adapt to change that is already 'in the system. • The biggest factor of present concern is the increase in CO2 levels due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols (particulate matter in the atmosphere), which exert a cooling effect, and cement manufacture.
Fossil fuels • Carbon dioxide variations over the last 400,000 years, showing a rise since the industrial revolution. • Beginning with the industrial revolution in the 1880s and accelerating ever since, the human consumption of fossil fuels has elevated CO2 levels from a concentration of ~280 ppm to ~387 ppm today. • These increasing concentrations are projected to reach a range of 535 to 983 ppm by the end of the 21st century. It is known that carbon dioxide levels are substantially higher now than at any time in the last 750,000 years. • Along with rising methane levels, these changes are anticipated to cause an increase of 1.4–5.6 °C between 1990 and 2100 (see global warming).
Land use • Prior to widespread fossil fuel use, humanity's largest effect on local climate is likely to have resulted from land use. Irrigation, deforestation, and agriculture fundamentally change the environment. • For example, they change the amount of water going into and out of a given location. They also may change the local albedo by influencing the ground cover and altering the amount of sunlight that is absorbed.