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Chapter 16 Therapies
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Chapter 16 Therapies

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  1. Chapter 16 Therapies

  2. Chapter Preview Biological Therapies Psychotherapy Sociocultural Approaches and Issues Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Therapies and Health and Wellness

  3. Biological Therapies Biomedical Approach • reduce/eliminate symptoms by altering body functioning Common Forms of Biological Therapy • drug therapy • electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) • psychosurgery

  4. Drug Therapy Antianxiety Drugs • benzodiazepines • buspirone Antidepressant Drugs • tricyclics • tetracyclics • monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

  5. Antidepressant Drugs Bipolar Disorder • lithium Risks of Antidepressants for Children • FDA hearings on risk of suicide (2004) • “Black Box” warning

  6. Drug Therapy Antipsychotic Drugs • neuroleptics (side effect - tardive dyskinesia) • atypical antipsychotic medications

  7. Drug Therapy

  8. Biological Therapies Electroconvulsive Therapy • small electric current produces a brief seizure • used to treat major depressive disorder which has not responded to other treatments • deep brain stimulation Psychosurgery • prefrontal lobotomies

  9. Psychotherapy Psychotherapy (face-to-face and cybertherapy) helps people recognize and overcome psychological and interpersonal difficulties. Preview of Psychotherapies • psychodynamic therapies • humanistic therapies • behavior therapies • cognitive therapies

  10. Psychodynamic Therapies Emphasis of this Approach • unconscious mind • therapeutic interpretation • early childhood experiences Goals of Therapy • recognize maladaptive coping strategies • identify sources of unconscious conflicts

  11. Psychodynamic Therapies Freudian Psychoanalysis • free association • catharsis • interpretation • dream analysis (manifest versus latent) • transference • resistance Contemporary Psychodynamic Therapies

  12. Humanistic Therapies Emphasis of this Approach • self healing • conscious thoughts • self fullfilment Goals of Therapy • self understanding • personal growth

  13. Roger’s Client-Centered Therapy • nondirective self exploration • warm, supportive atmosphere • active listening and reflective speech • unconditional positive regard • empathy and genuineness

  14. Behavior Therapies Emphasis of this Approach • overt behavior change rather than insights into self or into underlying causes Goals of Therapy • reduce or eliminate maladaptive behaviors Classical and Operant Conditioning

  15. Behavior Therapies Classical Conditioning Techniques Treating Phobias Systematic Desensitization • develop hierarchy of fearful scenes • learn relaxation techniques • apply relaxation while imagining fearful scenes Flooding • intense exposure without allowing avoidance

  16. Desensitization for Test Anxiety

  17. Aversive Conditioningnoxious stimuli paired with conditioned stimulus

  18. Behavior Therapies Operant Conditioning Techniques… unlearning maladaptive behavior (e.g., OCD) through altered consequences. Applied Behavior Analysis • positive reinforcement of adaptive behaviors • extinguish maladaptive behaviors • does not depend on gaining insight

  19. Cognitive Therapies Emphasis of this Approach • thoughts (cognitions) are the primary source of psychological problems • how we think controls how we feel • focus on overt problems (unlike Freud) • structured analysis and specific guidance (unlike Rogers) Goals of Therapy • cognitive restructuring

  20. Cognitive Therapies Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy • irrational and self-defeating beliefs • eliminate beliefs through rational examination • directive, persuasive, confrontational Beck’s Cognitive Therapy • illogical automatic negative thoughts • identify and challenge automatic thoughts • reflective, open-ended dialogue, less directive Both are more effective in treating depression than drugs.

  21. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Albert Bandura and Self Efficacy Cognitive-Behavior Therapy - self-defeating thoughts - incorporates behavior therapy - self-instructional methods

  22. Therapy Integrations Techniques from different therapies are combined for the benefit of the client (e.g., dialectical behavior therapy).

  23. Comparing Psychotherapies

  24. How Does Therapy Affect the Brain? Brain Imaging Studies • use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) • shows that brain function can be normalized (e.g., cognitive remediation therapy increases prefrontal cortex activity in schizophrenics)

  25. Sociocultural Approaches Emphasis • influence of various social/cultural factors Approaches to Therapy • group therapy • family and couples therapy • self-help support groups • community mental health

  26. Sociocultural Approaches and Issues Group Therapy • group shares disorder • professional facilitates Family and Couples Therapy • symptoms are a function of relationships • therapeutic techniques validation reframing structural change detriangulation

  27. Sociocultural Approaches and Issues Self-Help Support Groups • conducted by paraprofessionals Community Mental Health • deinstitutionalization (rise in homelessness) • prevention • empowerment

  28. Sociocultural Approaches and Issues Cultural Perspectives • individualistic v. collectivistic cultures • ethnicity - match between client and therapist • gender - balance between independence and relatedness - feminist therapies

  29. Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Research results show that all therapies are “winners”. Common Themes in Successful Psychotherapy • expectations of help • increased sense of competence • emotional arousal is a motivator • therapeutic alliance • client factors (active engagement)

  30. Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

  31. Effects of Therapy on Health and Wellness • stress reduction in cancer patients • reduces physical health risks in those who are depressed • not only reduces symptoms, but enhances psychological wellness • well-being therapy - short-term, problem-focused, directive - notice and celebrate positive experiences

  32. Chapter Summary Describe the biological approaches to therapy. Define and characterize four types of psychotherapy. Explain the sociocultural approaches and issues in treatment. Discuss the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Discuss the impact that therapy has on health and wellness.

  33. Chapter Summary Biological Therapies • drug therapy • electroconvulsive therapy • psychosurgery Psychodynamic Therapies • Freud’s psychoanalysis Humanistic Therapies • Rogers’s client-centered therapy

  34. Chapter Summary Behavior Therapies • systematic desensitization and flooding • aversive conditioning Cognitive Therapies • Ellis’s rational-emotive behavior therapy • Beck’s cognitive therapy • cognitive-behavior therapies

  35. Chapter Summary Sociocultural Approaches and Issues • group, family, and couples therapy • self-help groups and community mental health • cultural perspectives Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Therapies and Health and Wellness • physical health and preventing disorders