slide1 l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 16 Therapies PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 16 Therapies

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 35

Chapter 16 Therapies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 16 Therapies. Chapter Preview. Biological Therapies Psychotherapy Sociocultural Approaches and Issues Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Therapies and Health and Wellness. Biological Therapies. Biomedical Approach reduce/eliminate symptoms by altering body functioning

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

Chapter 16 Therapies

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 16


chapter preview
Chapter Preview

Biological Therapies


Sociocultural Approaches and Issues

Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

Therapies and Health and Wellness

biological therapies
Biological Therapies

Biomedical Approach

  • reduce/eliminate symptoms by altering body functioning

Common Forms of Biological Therapy

  • drug therapy
  • electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  • psychosurgery
drug therapy
Drug Therapy

Antianxiety Drugs

  • benzodiazepines
  • buspirone

Antidepressant Drugs

  • tricyclics
  • tetracyclics
  • monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
antidepressant drugs
Antidepressant Drugs

Bipolar Disorder

  • lithium

Risks of Antidepressants for Children

  • FDA hearings on risk of suicide (2004)
  • “Black Box” warning
drug therapy6
Drug Therapy

Antipsychotic Drugs

  • neuroleptics

(side effect - tardive dyskinesia)

  • atypical antipsychotic medications
biological therapies8
Biological Therapies

Electroconvulsive Therapy

  • small electric current produces a brief seizure
  • used to treat major depressive disorder which has not responded to other treatments
  • deep brain stimulation


  • prefrontal lobotomies

Psychotherapy (face-to-face and cybertherapy) helps

people recognize and overcome psychological and

interpersonal difficulties.

Preview of Psychotherapies

  • psychodynamic therapies
  • humanistic therapies
  • behavior therapies
  • cognitive therapies
psychodynamic therapies
Psychodynamic Therapies

Emphasis of this Approach

  • unconscious mind
  • therapeutic interpretation
  • early childhood experiences

Goals of Therapy

  • recognize maladaptive coping strategies
  • identify sources of unconscious conflicts
psychodynamic therapies11
Psychodynamic Therapies

Freudian Psychoanalysis

  • free association
  • catharsis
  • interpretation
  • dream analysis (manifest versus latent)
  • transference
  • resistance

Contemporary Psychodynamic Therapies

humanistic therapies
Humanistic Therapies

Emphasis of this Approach

  • self healing
  • conscious thoughts
  • self fullfilment

Goals of Therapy

  • self understanding
  • personal growth
roger s client centered therapy
Roger’s Client-Centered Therapy
  • nondirective self exploration
  • warm, supportive atmosphere
      • active listening and reflective speech
      • unconditional positive regard
      • empathy and genuineness
behavior therapies
Behavior Therapies

Emphasis of this Approach

  • overt behavior change rather than insights into self or into underlying causes

Goals of Therapy

  • reduce or eliminate maladaptive behaviors

Classical and Operant Conditioning

behavior therapies15
Behavior Therapies

Classical Conditioning Techniques

Treating Phobias

Systematic Desensitization

  • develop hierarchy of fearful scenes
  • learn relaxation techniques
  • apply relaxation while imagining fearful scenes


  • intense exposure without allowing avoidance
behavior therapies18
Behavior Therapies

Operant Conditioning Techniques…

unlearning maladaptive behavior (e.g., OCD) through altered consequences.

Applied Behavior Analysis

  • positive reinforcement of adaptive behaviors
  • extinguish maladaptive behaviors
  • does not depend on gaining insight
cognitive therapies
Cognitive Therapies

Emphasis of this Approach

  • thoughts (cognitions) are the primary source of psychological problems
  • how we think controls how we feel
  • focus on overt problems (unlike Freud)
  • structured analysis and specific guidance (unlike Rogers)

Goals of Therapy

  • cognitive restructuring
cognitive therapies20
Cognitive Therapies

Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy

  • irrational and self-defeating beliefs
  • eliminate beliefs through rational examination
  • directive, persuasive, confrontational

Beck’s Cognitive Therapy

  • illogical automatic negative thoughts
  • identify and challenge automatic thoughts
  • reflective, open-ended dialogue, less directive

Both are more effective in treating depression than drugs.

cognitive behavior therapy
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

Albert Bandura and Self Efficacy

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

- self-defeating thoughts

- incorporates behavior therapy

- self-instructional methods

therapy integrations
Therapy Integrations

Techniques from different

therapies are combined for the

benefit of the client (e.g.,

dialectical behavior therapy).

how does therapy affect the brain
How Does Therapy Affect the Brain?

Brain Imaging Studies

  • use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  • shows that brain function can be normalized (e.g., cognitive remediation therapy increases prefrontal cortex activity in schizophrenics)
sociocultural approaches
Sociocultural Approaches


  • influence of various social/cultural factors

Approaches to Therapy

  • group therapy
  • family and couples therapy
  • self-help support groups
  • community mental health
sociocultural approaches and issues
Sociocultural Approaches and Issues

Group Therapy

  • group shares disorder
  • professional facilitates

Family and Couples Therapy

  • symptoms are a function of relationships
  • therapeutic techniques



structural change


sociocultural approaches and issues27
Sociocultural Approaches and Issues

Self-Help Support Groups

  • conducted by paraprofessionals

Community Mental Health

  • deinstitutionalization (rise in homelessness)
  • prevention
  • empowerment
sociocultural approaches and issues28
Sociocultural Approaches and Issues

Cultural Perspectives

  • individualistic v. collectivistic cultures
  • ethnicity

- match between client and therapist

  • gender

- balance between independence and relatedness

- feminist therapies

effectiveness of psychotherapy
Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

Research results show that all therapies are “winners”.

Common Themes in Successful Psychotherapy

  • expectations of help
  • increased sense of competence
  • emotional arousal is a motivator
  • therapeutic alliance
  • client factors (active engagement)
effects of therapy on health and wellness
Effects of Therapy on Health and Wellness
  • stress reduction in cancer patients
  • reduces physical health risks in those who are depressed
  • not only reduces symptoms, but enhances psychological wellness
  • well-being therapy

- short-term, problem-focused, directive

- notice and celebrate positive experiences

chapter summary
Chapter Summary

Describe the biological approaches to therapy.

Define and characterize four types of psychotherapy.

Explain the sociocultural approaches and issues in treatment.

Discuss the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

Discuss the impact that therapy has on health and wellness.

chapter summary33
Chapter Summary

Biological Therapies

  • drug therapy
  • electroconvulsive therapy
  • psychosurgery

Psychodynamic Therapies

  • Freud’s psychoanalysis

Humanistic Therapies

  • Rogers’s client-centered therapy
chapter summary34
Chapter Summary

Behavior Therapies

  • systematic desensitization and flooding
  • aversive conditioning

Cognitive Therapies

  • Ellis’s rational-emotive behavior therapy
  • Beck’s cognitive therapy
  • cognitive-behavior therapies
chapter summary35
Chapter Summary

Sociocultural Approaches and Issues

  • group, family, and couples therapy
  • self-help groups and community mental health
  • cultural perspectives

Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

Therapies and Health and Wellness

  • physical health and preventing disorders