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Prologue to Chapter 12. This chapter is about personality theories and assessment of personality What is personality? Why are we all different? Why are some people or friends and some people our enemies? What makes us uniquely us? Why are we like the way we are?

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prologue to chapter 12
Prologue to Chapter 12
  • This chapter is about personality theories and assessment of personality
    • What is personality? Why are we all different? Why are some people or friends and some people our enemies?
    • What makes us uniquely us? Why are we like the way we are?
    • These are questions of personality

Psych 101 Chapter 12

definition of personality
Definition of personality
  • Personality is the sum total of the typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that makes each person unique.
  • Everyone has a uniquely different way of viewing the world, other people, and themselves.
  • There is not “one reality” but rather a sharing of partial common realities among people.

Psych 101 Chapter 12

psychoanalytic theory sigmund freud
Psychoanalytic Theory: Sigmund Freud
  • Psychoanalytic view of consciousness: 3 levels of consciousness
    • the conscious mind
    • the preconscious mind
    • the unconscious mind
  • Psychoanalytic view of the personality
    • triparite personality structure: 3 parts
    • id, ego, and superego

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the id
The Id
  • The Id is the “selfish beast” part of the personality
  • It is contained in the unconscious part of the mind
  • The Id uses the “primary process” to satisfy its needs
  • The Id operates according to the “pleasure principle”

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the superego
The Superego
  • The superego is the conscience and ego ideal
  • The superego is a “relentless policeman” and continues to insist that we do the “right thing”
  • The superego opposes the desires of the Id
  • The superego enforces moral restrictions and battles against Id impulses

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the ego
The Ego
  • The ego is the executive of the personality
  • The ego uses its cognitive abilities to manage and control the Id and balance its desires against the restrictions of reality and the superego
  • The ego operates according to the “reality principle”
  • The ego defends itself from Id-Superego struggles via various defense mechanisms

Psych 101 Chapter 12

defense mechanisms
Defense mechanisms
  • Displacement and sublimation: becoming a member of society
    • displacement: an ego defense mechanism and the process of substituting an acceptable goal for an unacceptable goal of an id motive
    • in displacement, the ego resolves a conflict between the Id and Superego in the real world by making an acceptable compromise

Psych 101 Chapter 12

defense mechanisms9
Defense mechanisms
  • Sublimation: the process of substituting a socially desireable goal for a socially harmful goal
    • teenagers often sublimate their sexual energy into sports
    • adults may throw themselves into their work rather than to pursue a divorce

Psych 101 Chapter 12

defense mechanisms10
Defense mechanisms
  • The ego uses many other defense mechanisms to protect it from id-superego conflicts. These defenses include:
    • denial, projection, and identification
    • intellectualization, reaction formation, and regression
    • there are about 20 various defense mechanisms used by the ego

Psych 101 Chapter 12

defense mechanisms11
Defense mechanisms
  • Everyone uses defense mechanisms from time to time
  • Excessive use of defense mechanisms will, over time, result in the ego becoming increasingly detached from reality and, in time, can cause psychological disorder
  • Psychoanalysis involves effort to understand defenses and unconscious motives driving self-destructive behaviors

Psych 101 Chapter 12

psychosexual development
Psychosexual development
  • Growing up, as viewed by the psychoanalytic theory, is a passage through 5 psychosexual stages
  • The 5 stages are:
    • the oral stage: 0-1 year of age
    • the anal stage: 1-3 years of age
    • the phallic stage: 3-6 years of age
    • the latent stage: 6-11 years of age
    • the genital stage: 12+ years of age

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the oral stage
The Oral Stage
  • This stage lasts from birth to the first year
  • Id gratification is focused on the mouth
  • The mouth is the main “erogenous zone”
  • Much effort directed toward stimulation of the mouth
  • Fixations can occur at any of the 5 stages
    • retentive fixations
    • expulsive fixations

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the anal stage
The Anal Stage
  • The stage lasts from 1 to 3 years of age
  • Potty training, control, and delayed gratification are issues during this time
  • Erogenous zone is the sphincter muscles of the anus and urinary tract
  • Fixations at this stage
    • anal retentive personality
    • anal expulsive personality

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the phallic stage
The Phallic Stage
  • This stage lasts from age 3 to 6 years
  • The genital region becomes the primary source of id gratification
  • Children will be observed to be handling their genitals (“pocket pool”) and parents should accept this as normal
  • Fixations can occur at this stage
    • phallic retentive fixation
    • phallic expulsive fixation

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the latent stage
The Latent Stage
  • This stage lasts from age 6 to age 11 years
  • Sexual desires are strongly suppressed during this time through resolution of the Oedipus (male) and Electra (female) complexes
  • Interests shift toward social interaction and there is no major shift in erogenous zones
  • The “troubled child” will be seen to have their problems seemingly disappear

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the genital stage
The Genital Stage
  • This stage begins about age 12 and continues throughout a person’s life
  • Sexual and romantic interests become directed toward one’s peers
  • “Normal” adult heterosexuality emerges that is an other-sex-directed pursuit of genital erogenous zone stimulation

Psych 101 Chapter 12

criticism of freud s psychoanalytic theory
Criticism of Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory
  • Many individuals had concerns about Freud’s focus on sexuality as the key factor in personality development
  • As a result of this criticism, the “Neo-Freudians” began to develop their own theories concerning personality development. We will examine a few neo-Freudians and their views about personality.

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the neo freudians
The Neo-Freudians
  • Carl Gustav Jung: Jungian psychology
    • contributed the concepts of introversion and extroversion to understanding of personality
    • contributed the concepts of “personal unconscious” and “collective unconscious” to understanding of personality
    • archetypes, racial memories, and the collective unconscious
    • Jung influenced by the occult

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the neo freudians20
The Neo-Freudians
  • Alfred Adler: Adlerian psychology
    • Adler felt the primary struggle in personality development was the overcoming of feelings of inferiority
    • Adler contributed the notion of the “inferiority complex” in the understanding of personality
    • Personality development strives toward acceptance of self and recognition of one’s self worth

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the neo freudians21
The Neo-Freudians
  • Karen Horney: Hornian psychology
    • Horney felt that anxious insecurity stemming from inadequate child-rearing experiences are the major source of personality conflicts and personality disturbances
    • Horney is considered to be the first “feminist” of psychology
  • Other neo-Freudians include Henry Stack Sullivan and Erik Erikson

Psych 101 Chapter 12

social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • Albert Bandura is the founder of this school of thought in psychology
  • Social learning theorists believe that personality is the sum of all the ways that we have LEARNED to act, think, and feel
  • The role of learning in personality development
    • modeling from parents and others
    • direct and vicarious reinforcement

Psych 101 Chapter 12

humanistic theory
Humanistic Theory
  • Major names associated with humanistic theory include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
  • Humanistic theory is called the “3rd force” in psychology (psychoanalysis and behaviorism being the other 2 forces)
  • Personality development is driven by internal forces toward growth

Psych 101 Chapter 12

humanistic theory25
Humanistic Theory
  • Humanistic theory makes certain assumptions about people:
    • humans are basically “good” and not evil nor neutral; this is contrary to psychoanalytic theory which assumes humans are “evil” and behavior theory which assumes people are “neutral”
    • reality, in humanism, is “subjective” and not “objective”
    • there is no single “real world”

Psych 101 Chapter 12

humanistic theory26
Humanistic Theory
  • The self-concept and personality development
    • our self-concept is our own subjective perception of who we are and what we are like
    • self-concept is our own making based on our own perception of ourselves
    • changing the subjective nature of reality by altering perceptions can improve one’s self-concept

Psych 101 Chapter 12

humanism compared
Humanism compared
  • Humanism compared to psychoanalytic theory and social learning theory
    • psychoanalytic theory: we are basically evil, hostile, and selfish (Id impulse driven)
    • social learning theory: we are basically neutral and learn to be what we are like from our environment
    • the philosophical underpinnings of each of the 3 forces in psychology are quite different

Psych 101 Chapter 12

assessing personality
Assessing Personality
  • Traits and situations: Describing the consistencies of personality
    • Traits are relatively enduring ways of behaving
    • Trait theories of personality; we’ll discuss:
      • Allport’s trait theory
      • Cattell’s trait theory
      • The 5-factor Model of Personality Traits
      • Situationism and Interactionism

Psych 101 Chapter 12

allport s trait theory
Allport’s Trait Theory
  • Gordon Allport believed that the most important traits of personality were those related to our values
  • Allport distinguished between 3 categories of value-related traits
    • cardinal traits
    • central traits
    • secondary traits

Psych 101 Chapter 12

cattell s trait theory
Cattell’s Trait Theory
  • Raymond Cattell believed there were three types of traits useful to describe personality
    • “dynamic” traits
    • “ability” traits
    • “temperament” traits
  • Cattell also distinguished between “surface” and “source” traits

Psych 101 Chapter 12

the 5 factor model of personality traits
The 5-factor Model of Personality Traits
  • Many personality theorists generally agree that there are 5 basic personality traits that should be considered in assessing personality
  • These five traits are:
    • neuroticism
    • extroversion
    • openness
    • agreeableness
    • conscientiousness

Psych 101 Chapter 12

situationism and interactionism
Situationism and Interactionism
  • Situationism: suggests that our behavior is determined by the situation and not by some internal traits
    • we do that which is expedient at the moment
    • we respond to the moment and not based on a collection of traits
  • Interactionism: holds that behavior is influenced by a combination of characteristics of person and the situation

Psych 101 Chapter 12

personality assessment
Personality Assessment
  • How does one measure another’s personality? Methods include:
    • interviews and observation
    • projective personality tests
    • objective personality tests
  • We will now discuss each of these in some depth

Psych 101 Chapter 12

interviews and observation
Interviews and Observation
  • Interviews consist of dialogue with the person in an effort to detect their ideas, beliefs, and values
    • when you first meet someone you have likely engaged in this method of personality assessment
  • Observation consists of watching the person in various situations over time in an effort to discern their ideas, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns

Psych 101 Chapter 12

projective personality tests
Projective Personality Tests
  • These are based on the belief that the unconscious mind contains the roots of personality
  • They are based on a psychoanalytic view of personality
  • Types of projective tests include:
    • Rorshach Inkblot test
    • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    • Word- and free-association tests

Psych 101 Chapter 12

objective personality tests
Objective Personality Tests
  • Objective tests attempt to overcome the subjectivity of interviews and projective tests by using paper-pencil multiple choice tests
  • Examples of objective personality tests include the PF-16 (Cattell) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

Psych 101 Chapter 12

evaluation of personality tests
Evaluation of Personality Tests
  • Results of research on personality tests suggest caution in relying exclusively on the interpretations of personality tests
  • Results suggest that personality tests are useful, but that results from these tests should be used to confirm other data gathered on a person and not used as the sole assessment tool

Psych 101 Chapter 12

application of psychology
Application of Psychology
  • Situational influences on personality in everyday life
    • situations in our lives have a powerful influence on our general behavior
    • situations can, if extreme, radically change our general way of behaving
      • would you ever consider eating another human?
      • would you ever consider drinking urine?
      • would you ever kill, lie, or commit adultery?

Psych 101 Chapter 12

questions
Questions?
  • Any questions over Chapter 12?

Psych 101 Chapter 12