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Prologue to Chapter 10. Motivation and Emotion Why do we do the things we do? Why do we feel the way we do about events in our life? What is “hunger?” Why are many people overweight? Why do some teenage girls starve themselves to death in the midst of plenty?

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Prologue to chapter 10
Prologue to Chapter 10

  • Motivation and Emotion

    • Why do we do the things we do?

    • Why do we feel the way we do about events in our life?

    • What is “hunger?” Why are many people overweight? Why do some teenage girls starve themselves to death in the midst of plenty?

    • These are the questions of motivation and emotion

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Definitions of motivation and emotion
Definitions of motivation and emotion

  • Motivation

    • those factors that activate behavior and give it direction

    • those factors that make us do what we do and give our behavior either a positive or negative direction

    • psychologists abbreviate the term “motivation” with the letter “K” (as per Clark Hull’s work in the 1940s)

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Definitions of motivation and emotion1
Definitions of motivation and emotion

  • Emotion

    • positive or negative feelings

    • generally in reaction to environmental stimuli

    • emotion is accompanied by physiological arousal and related behaviors

    • examples include love, hate, fear, joy, loathing, etc.

  • We will now examine primary motives

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Primary Motives

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Primary motives biological needs
Primary motives: biological needs

  • Homeostasis: biological “thermostats”

    • homeostasis is a process by which internal body mechanisms sense biological imbalances and stimulate action to restore the proper balances

    • homeostatic controls exist for hunger, thirst, body temperature, electrolyte levels, etc.

    • we will discuss hunger and thirst motives in detail next

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Primary motive hunger
Primary motive: hunger

  • Hunger is the regulation of food intake

  • There are biological and psychological regulators operative in hunger

  • Biological regulation of hunger

    • control center located in the hypothalamus

    • homeostatic monitoring of blood sugar levels; insulin and glucagon monitoring

    • rat and cat experiments (surgical ablations)

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Primary motives hunger
Primary motives: hunger

  • Specific hungers and homeostasis

    • animals deprived of protein, a specific vitamin, or fat will tend to eat greater quantities of foods containing that element when later given a choice

    • children will, if it is available, eat the substances they need to have in their diet; have nutritious snacks available for them from which to choose and they will eat right

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Primary motives hunger1
Primary motives: hunger

  • Psychological factors in hunger

    • learning affects hunger

    • emotion affects hunger

    • incentives affect hunger

    • social situations affect hunger

    • commercials, time, and smells all affect hunger

    • “stimulus control” and dieting: controlling the cues to eat

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Primary motives thirst
Primary motives: thirst

  • Thirst is the regulation of fluid intake

  • Biological regulation of thirst

    • a “drink” and a “stop drinking” center are located in different sections of the hypothalamus

    • homeostatic measurements of blood volume regulate thirst; as blood volume decreases a hormone called angiotensin is released by the kidneys; hypthalamic detection causes thirst

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Primary motives thirst1
Primary motives: thirst

  • Biological regulation of thirst (cont.)

    • cell fluid levels in the body and a dry mouth are also stimuli which affect thirst

  • Psychological factors in thirst

    • excluding alcohol, it is not as powerful as that for foods

    • body is not picky about what fluids, however fluids that contain addictive substances may be craved, e.g., coffee, pop, tea, and beer

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Primary motives thirst2
Primary motives: thirst

  • Psychological factors in thirst (cont.)

    • cravings for addictive drinks are not due to deprivation of required substances (as is the case in food cravings); drink cravings are psychological dependencies

    • social drinking and coffee klatching as cues for injestion of certain beverages

      • alcoholism and social drinkers

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Psychological motives

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Psychological motives
Psychological motives

  • Psychological motives are motives not directly related to the biological survival of the individual or species

  • Stimulus motivation: Seeking out novel stimulation

    • the Optimum Arousal Theory

    • the Yerkes-Dodson Law of motivation and task performance

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Psychological motives1
Psychological motives

  • Affiliation motivation: the drive to be in contact with others

  • Achievement motivation: the need for success in competitive situations

    • fear of failure

      • failure to try because of fear you might not succeed

    • fear of success

      • snatching defeat out of the mouth of victory because of fear of success

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Psychological motives2
Psychological motives

  • Solomon’s “Opponent-Process” theory of acquired motives

    • based on a notion of affective contrast and affective habituation

    • people acquire habits of doing things that provide emotional excitement and break up boredom

    • Would you hang-glide? Free-fall? Fly a plane or climb Mount Everest?

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

  • Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by the inherent nature of the activity itself; by the process itself and with no external rewards

  • Extrinsic motivation is stimulated not by the process itself but by what can be gotten from doing the activity, e.g., a reward or recognition or other gain

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs”

  • Lower level needs must be met before higher level needs will be operative

  • Maslow: a humanistic psychologist; his theory is often observed in business

  • Maslow’s pyramid of ascending needs

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Maslow s hierarchy of needs1
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self Actualization

Esteem Needs

Belongingness Needs

Safety Needs

  • Physiological Needs

Psych 101 Chapter 10



Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Psychologists have trouble agreeing on a precise definition of emotions

  • Three (3) theories of emotions

    • the “James-Lange Theory” suggests that an emotional stimulus produces a bodily reaction, which them produces an emotional feeling. The BODY makes the feeling.

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Three (3) theories (continued)

    • The “Cannon-Bard Theory” states that an emotional stimulus simultaneously produces both the emotional experience and the physiological arousal; the BODY and the MIND are influenced together by the emotion-producing stimulus

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Three (3) theories (continued)

    • “Cognitive Theory” suggests that there are two (2) steps in the cognitive interpretation of emotion

      • the interpretation of incoming stimuli from the environment

      • the interpretation of stimuli from the body resulting from autonomic arousal

      • the MIND influences the BODY which then influences the MIND again...

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Each of these three theories suggests an approach for dealing with emotions and therapy in clinical settings

    • Do you act your way into a new way of feeling?

    • Do you feel your way into a new way of acting?

    • Do you feel and act together simultaneously to resolve emotional difficulties?

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • The physiology of emotion and the lie detector device

    • what is a lie detector machine?

    • how does it work and what does it measure?

    • can you beat a lie detector machine?

    • why aren’t lie detectors considered good evidence in a court of law?

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • The role of learning and culture in the experiencing of emotion

    • many psychologists believe that we are born with basic emotions

    • comparisons of different cultures reveal that learning plays an important role in the experience of emotions and what emotions we will or won’t have

    • emotional illnesses by cultures

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Cultural emotional illnesses include:

    • Windigo

      • an emotional illness in far North American Native Americans

      • an irresistable urge to kill and eat your neighbor

    • Depression

      • Northern Europeans are particularly prone toward depression

    • Polynesian fears of the penis growing inward

Psych 101 Chapter 10


Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • The emotional and motivational aspects of human aggression

  • Why are we the most violent species?

  • We will examine several theories concerning human aggression

    • Freud’s “instinct theory”

    • Dollard & Miller’s “frustration-aggression”

    • Bandura’s “social learning theory”

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Freud’s “instinct theory”: the release of aggressive energy

    • sex and violence: the source of psychic energy (the libido)

    • “catharsis”

    • Freud suggested that all animals (including humans) are born with potent aggressive instincts that must be released in some way

    • the “sublimation” of aggression

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Dollard & Miller’s “Frustration-Aggression hypothesis”

    • blocked goals cause aggression

    • aggression is a natural reaction to the frustration of a blocked goal

    • theory suggests the inevitability of aggression

    • is it inevitable that aggression occur and, if so, what implications for the human race?

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Bandura’s “Social Learning Theory” and aggression

    • aggression is learned by observing others benefit from aggression

    • theory posits that aggression is learned and is not inevitable

    • sources of observations of violence include TV violence of many types

    • are we teaching ourselves to be aggressive?

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Culture and aggression

    • according to Richard Nesbitt, socially learned attitudes may be the basis for the difference in rates of violence in the United States

    • love, hate, religion, racism, and war

    • what about the future now that we have hydrogen bombs and intercontinental ballistic missles to deliver megadeath in 30 minutes?

    • can we learn to be passive and not aggressive?

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Applications of Psychology

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Applications of psychology
Applications of psychology

  • Can we have peace on earth or will we become extinct?

    • what do we teach ourselves?

    • what must we do to preserve our species from nuclear annilhilation?

    • Green Peace vs Red War: can we reprogram ourselves for a sustainable future?

Psych 101 Chapter 10


  • Any questions over Chapter 10?

Psych 101 Chapter 10

Test 3 coming up
Test #3 coming up!

  • We will have a test over chapters 8, 9, and 10 coming up

  • Remember to read the chapters, study your notes, use the study guide, and bring 2 #2 pencils to the class on test day

  • Remember to have your studyguide checked BEFORE test day by me or a proctor

Psych 101 Chapter 10