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Branches of Buddhism. The 2 main schools of Buddhism are Mahayana and Theravada. Early Buddhism. After Buddha’s parinirvana : the sangha continued to operate. They met to keep the teachings consistent. Since the monks and nuns travelled a lot, the views began to change.

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branches of buddhism

Branches of Buddhism

The 2 main schools of Buddhism are Mahayana and Theravada

early buddhism
Early Buddhism
  • After Buddha’s parinirvana:
  • the sangha continued to operate.
  • They met to keep the teachings consistent.
  • Since the monks and nuns travelled a lot, the views began to change.
  • Buddhist practices merged with local customs.
  • The community disagreed about which scriptures to recognize.
  • Both the main schools recognize the Tripitaka as their scripture.
theravada buddhism
Theravada Buddhism
  • The “way of the elders”, formerly known as Hinayana (“the lesser vehicle”)
  • Oldest, most conservative
  • Only accepts Tripitaka
  • does not see Buddha as a god
  • meditation helps monks reach enlightenment
  • Ideal human state = arhat
  • Spread initially through monks and nuns sent out by the Emperor Ashoka
theravadin practices
Theravadin practices
  • Lay people’s main focus is 3 things:
  • Dana (giving to monks) – sila(morality) – bhavana(meditation, beginning w puja)
  • Monks live a very structured life of meditation, study and chanting; community supports them completely.
  • Their goal is panna (wisdom) – sila(morality) – samadhi (mental training to reach enlightenment)
performing dana thai monks collecting alms http www youtube com watch v hn f 2ug ki
Performing dana“Thai monks collecting alms” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HN-f-2uG-kI
mahayana buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism
  • This branch includes Zen, Pure Land Buddhism, Tibetan (aka Vajrayana) and others.
  • “the greater vehicle”
  • Many Mahayana Buddhists see Buddha as god
  • Believe in many Buddhas and people pray to them
  • Ideal human state = bodhisattva (also Buddhahood)
  • Recognize Tripitaka and many sutras as scriptures
  • Rituals reflect culture of the people
mahayana devotion
Mahayana devotion
  • Compared to Theravada, Mahayana is far more devotional (love of a god) and lay-focused.

Cundi and Avalokitesvara (many forms exist of both)

slide9

Bodhisattva’s paying respect to the Buddha (l), Matreiya Buddha(r), the Buddha who is yet to come – sometimes depicted as Budai

slide10

Amida Buddha (Pure Land Sect) (l) and Guan Yin (r) with Amida Buddha in her crown. Guan Yin has many names and forms in different countries – often called Goddess of Mercy

mahayana practices
Mahayana practices
  • Meditation – focus on an object (a Buddha image, a flower), a saying of B. Meditation varies – sitting, walking, working
  • Chanting mantras, e.g. OM MANI PADME HUM (Tibetan) –counted on a mala
  • Compassion
  • Specific practices for certain subgroups
  • Puja
  • dana
mahayana subgroups
Mahayana subgroups
  • Zen
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_WAi2fwUqN4 (asian art museum)
  • The Zen Mind
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XK_4Z5DZcNM
branch comparisons
Branch comparisons
  • Theravada
  • Humans are individual
  • Wisdom is key belief
  • Religion is for monks
  • Meditation is the key practice
  • Early scriptures in Pali(dhamma, kamma)
  • Mahayana
  • Communities are important
  • Compassion is key belief
  • Religion is for everyone
  • People pray for requests
  • Scriptures in Sanskrit (dharma, karma)
what both schools agree on
What both schools agree on
  • Buddha is the only master and the ideal example
  • One must take refuge in the Buddha, dharma and sangha
  • This world is not created by a god
  • One must accept the 4 Noble Truths
  • All things are impermanent
how is tibet different
How is Tibet different?
  • emerged later in history (750 CE)
  • included in Mahayana
  • AKA esoteric Buddhism
  • Combined with native Tibetan religion
  • Ritualistic (mantras and using thangkas and mandalas) – builds concentration
  • Spiritual and political leader is Dalai Lama
  • Scriptures are translated to Tibetan
  • Practices include prayer wheels, flags and singing bowls
tibetan buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
  • Like other Mahayana groups, there is great concern for gaining merit (another word for good karma) and spreading compassion and peace.
slide18

Tibetan tour – prayer flags, wheels, mani stone pile (4:16)

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EOVvjim1ZRY
  • Life of an Australian Buddhist monk (5:23) “The Monk Story”
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRHkivEzCfw
  • A Day in the Life of Buddhist Zen Monks (1:52)
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yD9WDlwVYgw

Buddhist Spirituality and Modernity

  • Tibet Tech Prayer Wheel (1:40)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lgbx2D_bVk

  • Traditional Prayer wheels (both less than 1 min)
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=633eH4yajHE
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czFjg1xpfxM
  • Tibetan singing bowl (2:53)
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pn-J9-LQRw8
buddhism and modernity
Buddhism and Modernity
  • Jews in Buddhism
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qoWP1w4X3ws
  • SokaGakkai- http://www.sgi.org/
  • The Beastie Boys – Bodhisattva Vow
  • http://www.viduse.com/Play/4384047/0/Beastie-Boys/Bodhisattva-Vow.html