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Thinking outside…and inside…the box!. New and improved!. Science Olympiad Food Science Event 2008-2009 Sharon Ramsey Department of Food Science NC State University www.ncstatefoodscience/info. What will your team gain from Food Science?. Critical thinking and problem solving skills

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thinking outside and inside the box

Thinking outside…and inside…the box!

New and improved!

Science Olympiad

Food Science Event 2008-2009

Sharon Ramsey

Department of Food Science

NC State University


what will your team gain from food science
What will your team gain from Food Science?
  • Critical thinking and problem solving skills
  • Teamwork
  • Basic lab skills
  • Basic knowledge of food components and how they function in cookies
  • Packaging and labeling
where to start
Where to start?
    • Former state and regional event questions that are applicable to the new event
    • Sources for reagents and supplies
    • Information and instructions specific to the tasks and competition
day of event
Day of Event
  • Notebook, cookies and package checked in by 9:00 am
  • Afternoon events similar to events in prior years but not as many questions.
skills to learn
Skills to Learn
  • Critical thinking, problem solving and teamwork
    • Setting up the initial experiments…what to change?
    • What is the function of the box or bag ?
    • THINK about possible answers before performing tests
    • Split up the assignment

Think OUTSIDE the box!

skills to learn6
Skills to learn
  • Cookie formulation and production
    • Keeping your notebook (30%/20% of score)
    • Purpose of ingredients
      • Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids

leavening agents, flavors

colors, etc.

    • Weighing/measuring
      • Conversion to metric
    • Nutrition information
skills to learn7
Skills to learn
  • Cookie forming, baking and packaging
    • Methods for forming
    • Differences in ovens, temperature effects
      • Traditional, convection, microwave ovens
      • Maillard browning, caramelization
    • Types of packages and inserts
    • Labeling
skills to learn8
Skills to Learn
  • Basic lab skills for event
    • Pipeting
      • What is a drop?
    • Measuring and weighing
      • To Tare or not to Tare?
      • Accuracy counts!
    • Calculations and results
      • Significant figures
  • Procedures will be given…will not need to memorize them step by step
components to learn
Components to Learn
  • Basic knowledge of Food components and how they function
    • Carbohydrates
      • Sugars, Starches
      • Benedict’s test, Lugol’s Iodine
    • Lipids
      • Basic Structures
      • Brown bag (B) Sudan IV (C)
    • Proteins
      • Amino acids
      • Biuret test
    • Caloric values
    • Moisture/Density
    • Leavening agents
    • Water activity and microbial spoilage (C)
  • Carbohydrates
    • Cx(H2O)y carbon along with hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water
  • Basic unit – monosaccharide
  • Multiple units –
    • disaccharide (2)
    • trisaccharide (3)
    • oligosaccharide (2-10)
    • polysaccharide (>10)
  • Carbohydrate Structures (C only)

Glucose: D (+) glucose a-D(+) glucopyranose a-D(+) glucopyranose

Fisher Haworth 4C1 chair

Glucose, Fructose and Glactose are monosaccharides

  • Disaccharides
  • Examples:
    • Lactose (glucose and galactose) -milk
    • Maltose (glucose and glucose) -
  • Sucrose
    • Carbon 1 of glucose linked to carbon 2 of fructose –table sugar


  • Examples:
    • starch - glucose polymers, found in plants
    • cellulose –found in plant fibers, insoluble
    • Pectin-units are sugar acids rather than simple sugars, found in vegetables and fruits
  • Branched vs. linear
    • Starches are a mixture of branched (amylopectin) and linear (amylose) polysaccharides
  • Reducing vs. non-reducing sugars
    • A reducing sugar is any sugar that, in basic solution, forms an aldehyde or ketone. This allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent.
    • Examples: glucose, lactose
    • Non-reducing sugar contains no hemiacetal groups.
    • Example: sucrose
tests for carbohydrates
Tests for carbohydrates
  • Fehlings test or Benedicts test for sugars
  • Iodine test for starch

Positive reaction

benedict s test
Benedict’s Test
  • The Benedict's test allows us to detect the presence of reducing sugars (sugars with a free aldehyde or ketone group).  All monosaccharides are reducing sugars.  Some disaccharides are also reducing sugars.  Other disaccharides such as sucrose are non-reducing sugars and will not react with Benedict's solution.  Starches are also non-reducing sugars. 
  • The copper sulfate (CuSO4) present in Benedict's solution reacts with electrons from the aldehyde or ketone group of the reducing sugar to form cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a red-brown precipitate.
  • CuSO4 Cu++ + SO4--
  • 2 Cu++  +  Reducing Sugar  Cu+        (electron donor)
  • Cu+  Cu2O (precipitate)
  • The final color of the solution depends on how much of this precipitate was formed, and therefore the color gives an indication of how much reducing sugar was present if a quantitative reagent was used.
  • With increasing amounts of reducing sugar the result will be:

green yellow orange red

iodine test
Iodine Test
  • The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of starch.
  • Iodine solution – Iodine is dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide - reacts with starch producing a deep blue-black color.
  • This reaction is the result of the formation of polyiodide chains from the reaction of starch and iodine. The amylose, or straight chain portion of starch, forms helices where iodine molecules assemble, forming a dark blue/black color. The amylopectin, or branched portion of starch, forms much shorter helices and iodine molecules are unable to assemble, leading the color to be of an orange/yellow hue. As starch is broken down or hydrolyzed into smaller carbohydrate units, the blue-black color is not produced. Therefore, this test can determine completion of hydrolysis when a color change does not occur.
  • Iodine solution will also react with glycogen and cellulose, although the color produced is browner and much less intense.
  • Retrieved from ""
  • Present as fats extracted from plants or animals (butter, vegetable oil) or as constituents of food (cheese, meats)
  • Contributions to foods: texture and flavor
  • Unique characteristics:
    • Crystalline structure
    • Melting and solidifying
    • Association with water or other molecules
  • Lipids are composed of multiple fatty acids
    • Aliphatic monocarboxylic acids
    • Have 1+ carboxyl groups
  • Saturated
    • No double bonds
      • saturated with hydrogen
  • Unsaturated
    • Double bonds

Butyric acid (4:0)

Linoleic acid (18:2)

  • Cis vs. trans
  • Fatty acids with the same number of carbons and double bonds are not necessarily identical molecules
  • Geometric conformation can vary
    • Cis –on this side
    • Predominate in nature
    • Trans –across
    • Exist in small quantities naturally
    • Consumed as hydrogenated fats
  • Cis vs. Trans
  • Fatty acids are arranged in

groups of 3 on a 3 carbon

glycerol backbone -


  • Most common form for lipid in foods is as a triglyceride
  • What difference in texture would you see substituting vegetable shortening or vegetable oil for butter in the formulation?


  • Brown Bag Test (B) or Sudan IV (C)
  • Conversion between crystalline (solid) structure to a liquid state is called the melting point
    • Affected by
      • Saturation
      • Number of carbons in fatty acids
  • Saturated MP Unsaturated MP
  • Butyric (4:0) -5.3oC Palmitoleic (16:1) 0oC
  • Palmitic (16:0) 62.9oC Oleic (18:1) 16.3oC
  • Steric (18:0) 70.1oC Linoleic (18:2) -5oC
  • Linolenic (18:3) -11oC
  • Proteins are made up of amino acids
    • essential and nonessential
    • Each contains 1 primary amino

and 1 carboxyl group

    • At physiological pH the amino group has a (+) charge and the carboxyl group is (-) charged

Protein can be found in the flour, egg and milk.

  • Amino acids are connected by peptide bonds to make proteins
  • Condensation
  • reaction to create
  • a peptide bond
  • Different levels
  • of structure:
    • Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
  • Biuret Test
  • The Biuret Reagent is made of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate. The blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins, and changes to pink when combined with short-chain polypeptides.
moisture loss in cookies
Moisture loss in cookies
  • Need to weigh dough before and cookie after cooling.
  • Subtract weight of cookie from weight of dough to find amount of water lost
  • Divide water lost by initial weight of dough and multiply result by 100
  • (Weight initial-weight final)

weight initial

x 100

  • measure of mass per unit volume
    • Expressed in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3), grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) kilograms per litre (kg/L), pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³), pounds per cubic yard (lb/yd³), pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³), ounces per cubic inch (oz/in³), pounds per gallon (for U.S. or imperial gallons) (lb/gal), pounds per U.S. bushel (lb/bu),
    • dependent on temperature and pressure (PV=nRT)
    • common device for measuring fluid density is a pycnometer
    • Liquids- Place a known volume of liquid on a balance (measure in graduated cylinder, pipet, etc.
    • Solids
      • traditional shapes
        • may use geometry to figure out area of sample, then weight (marshmallows, hotdogs with ends cut off, etc).
      • Non-conforming shapes
        • Fill known volume with sample, then weigh (flours, etc.)
leavening agents
Leavening agents
  • Produce fermentation in dough (yeast) or a liquid or a material (baking soda or powder) used to produce a gas that 'lightens' dough or batter.
  • used to raise baked goods.
  • water a leavening agent (pie crusts, some crackers)
  • air incorporated into batter (angel and sponge cakes)
  • expand when heated and cause the raising of the dough or batter when gas is trapped in matrix of gluten and starch from flour
leavening agents32
Leavening agents
  • Baking soda
    • -NaHCO3
    • Needs moisture plus an acid source such as vinegar, citrus juice, sour cream, yogurt, buttermilk, chocolate, cocoa (not Dutch-processed), honey, molasses (also brown sugar), fruits or maple syrup to react
    • used to neutralize acids in foods
    • around 4 times as strong as baking powder
    • can cause soapy flavor in high amounts
leavening agents33
Leavening agents
  • Baking powder
    • NaHCO3 plus acidifier(s) and drying agent (usually an acid salt and cornstarch)
    • can cause acidity and/or bitter off-flavor
    • two acidifiers used in double acting to produce CO2 in two steps
    • Reacts when moistened and also reacts when heated
    • double-acting is the only commercial baking powder available today.
types of heating
Types of heating
  • Types of heating
    • Convection – moving air
    • Conduction – contact
    • Radiation - broiler
    • Microwave – energy into water, fat and sugar molecules
  • Bound notebooks – black/white paperboard cover best, can use spiral
  • Number all pages
  • Table of contents –
  • Sections listed in parameters
  • Document each trial. Data!
    • Discuss results, changes. Graphs need labels.
  • 30% -B 20% - C
cookie judging
Cookie judging
  • At least 5 representative cookies must be brought for judging. Plated, bagged, and not in package OK. Must be covered and sanitary.
  • Judged on appearance, flavor, texture and creativity
  • Judges will each taste cookies in event. They have right to disqualify cookie (not eat) if it doesn’t look sanitary.
  • 15% of event score
package labeling
  • Name for product…get creative!
  • Ingredients, nutritional label (correct from ingredients) and serving size
  • Weight of package (for one dozen cookies)
  • Graphics – take photo or draw pictures
  • Marketing message
  • Needs to keep cookies from breaking
  • Size of print
  • Placement of label items
    • main item name is largest type on package
    • ingredients statement- ingredients in decreasing order
    • company name and address
    • Weight for package
nutritional labels
Nutritional labels
  • Carbohydrates and proteins yield 4 kcal/g when consumed
  • lipids average yield 9 kcal/g when consumed
  • fats are the most concentrated source of food calories
  • carbohydrates are the cheapest source of calories
  • proteins the most expensive
  • Labels should be complete. Must figure out values by using the values of ingredients and amount used. These are mostly math problems.
nutritional labeling
Nutritional labeling
  • Fill in the following blanks on the result sheet.
    • There are ___ Calories/gram of fat.
    • There are ___ Calories/gram of carbohydrate
    • There are ___Calories/gram of protein
    • There are ___Calories/gram of water
  • Use the nutritional label given for information to answer the following questions:
    • Calculate the Calories in one serving of this product.
      • Calories from Fat
      • Calories from Protein
      • Total Calories in one serving
    • What percent of the carbohydrate Calories come from fiber?
    • If the daily value of iron is 18 mg per day, calculate the amount (in mg) of iron in one bar of this product.
spoilage contamination
  • Good sanitation in “lab” area
  • During processing
    • Metal contamination
    • Ingredient contamination
    • Heating, cooling problem
    • Water activity
  • Storage
    • Molds
    • Flavor changes
    • Texture changes
what is haacp
What is HAACP?

The Seven HACCP Principles

  • Conduct a Hazard Analysis.
  • Determine the CCP.
  • Establish Critical Limits.
  • Establish Monitoring Procedures.
  • Establish Corrective Actions.
  • Establish Verification Procedures.
  • Establish Record Keeping and Documentation.
  • Website for coaches and teams:
  • E-mail specific questions
    • Sharon Ramsey:
time to play
Time to play!
  • Ingredient mix up
  • Score some cookies!