Sometimes the Technology,
1 / 133

Sometimes the Technology, but Always the Thinking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Sometimes the Technology, but Always the Thinking. Your reflection / recall sheet What I did My thoughts on that Dr Jeni Wilson 2007. My Learning Intentions for the Session. To have you reflect on what the current level of thinking is in your class, centre, staff, school or cluster .

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Sometimes the Technology, but Always the Thinking' - stephen-gomez

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Sometimes the Technology,

but Always the Thinking

Your reflection / recall sheet

  • What I did

  • My thoughts on that

    Dr Jeni Wilson 2007

My Learning Intentions for the Session

To have you reflect on what the current level of thinking is in your class, centre, staff, school or cluster.

To develop your ability to raise the level of thinking in your focus area.

To develop an ongoing online community of people interested in raising the bar on the level of thinking and challenge in NZ primary and secondary schools / ECE centres through development of a wikispace for further contact.

To raise and broaden the level of thought involved in the use of ICT in classrooms and ECE centres.

How can I get

teachers / students

to think more deeply

in their teaching / learning?

Pinwheel formation (face out)

Write a brief statement about where your class, centre, staff or cluster are in terms of their development of thinking.

On the slips of paper write up the questions to which you want to gain answers today.

Turn in to the group and share your questions. Find the commonalities.

Reshape into 3-4 questions from the group. Write and place on the wonderings wall. You can also add any individual questions that didn’t get into the group questions but that you still want answered.

All view the wondering wall.

ICT is about creating an effective teaching and learning environment . . .

. . . where the use of information, thinking and communication tools

supports the learning that is occurring.

It is about environment . . . more effective teaching

of curriculum

and the key competencies

through provision of a wider range of tools and resources.

It is about students being more involved environment . . .

and empowered

to make more of the decisions about how they will learn

and therefore they need

to understand

how they learn / think.

Learning to Learn Theory environment . . .

  • Howard Gardner – Multiple Intelligences

  • Art Costa – Habits of Mind

  • Learning Styles

  • De Bono’s Thinking Hats

  • Bloom’s Taxonomy

Get fit environment . . .



To become a good runner you have to run regularly. environment . . .

To become a good thinker you have to think regularly.

You need to get “thinking fit”.

5 - 10 minutes a day will achieve it.

Become a thinking fitness coach in your classroom, staffroom, centre or cluster.

  • Students need to have a scaffolded process to initiate their thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

  • Make your own list of all the things that are essential to have in a restaurant.

  • Tell your group the third item on that list.

  • Design a restaurant that does not have that component.

  • Share your restaurant with the class.

So what do you do when you are thinking? thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

What is going on in the brain?

When we think we . . .

What If Key thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

Ryan's Thinkers Keys

Website link

What If Key thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

What if Little Red Riding Hood had been a boy on a motorbike. Retell the story.

What If Key thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

What thinking processes did you use in this activity?

What was going on in your brain?

Wait time!

Question Key thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

Here is the answer. Make up 10 interesting questions that might have been asked.


That's history.

I dropped it.

In the bath.


Question Key thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

Now design a question where this could be the only correct answer.


What thinking processes did you use in this activity?

What was going on in your brain?

Commonality Key thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

What might these two things have in common?

Chalk and cheese

Roses and motorbikes

Tennis and parachuting

A parking metre and a painting

Alternative Key thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

Work out three ways to clean your teeth without a toothbrush.

How could you run a school athletics sports without using any athletics gear?

Work out three ways that an orchard can sell its produce without selling the fruit.

Work out three ways to have tidy lawns without using a lawnmower.

Brainstorm Key thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

You have two minutes to brainstorm ideas for using the Brick Wall Key in the classroom.

The Brick Wall Key

Make a statement which could not generally be questioned or disputed, and then try to break down the wall by outlining other ways of dealing with the situation.

Eg.  Governments need to collect taxes in order to provide necessary services.

SCAMPER thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.


Think about substituting part of your product/process for something else. By looking for something to substitute you can often come up with new ideas.

Typical questions: What can I substitute to make an improvement? What if I swap this for that and see what happens? How can I substitute the place, time, materials or people?


Think about combining two or more parts of your probortunity to achieve a different product/process or to enhance synergy.

Typical questions: What materials, features, processes, people, products or components can I combine? Where can I build synergy?


Think about which parts of the product/process could be adapted to remove the probortunity or think how you could change the nature of the product/process.

Typical questions: What part of the product could I change? And in exchange for what? What if I were to change the characteristics of a component?


Think about changing part or all of the current situation, or to distort it in an unusual way. By forcing yourself to come up with new ways of working, you are often prompted into an alternative product/process.

Typical questions: What happens if I warp or exaggerate a feature or component? What will happen if I modify the process in some way?

PUT TO OTHER PURPOSES thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

Think of how you might be able to put your current solution/ product/process to other purposes, or think of what you could reuse from somewhere else in order to solve your own probortunity. You might think of another way of solving your own probortunity or finding another market for your product.

Typical questions: What other market could I use this product in? Who or what else might be able to use it?


Think of what might happen if you eliminated various parts of the product/process/probortunity and consider what you might do in that situation. This often leads you to consider different ways of tackling the probortunity.

Typical questions: What would happen if I removed a component or part of it? How else would I achieve the solution without the normal way of doing it?


Think of what you would do if part of your probortunity/product/process worked in reverse or was done in a different order. What would you do if you had to do it in reverse? You can use this to see your probortunity from different angles and come up with new ideas.

Typical questions: What if I did it the other way round? What if I reverse the order it is done or the way it is used? How would I achieve the opposite effect?

Eliminate: thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

Design a train that has no wheels.

How could you build a house without using any nails or screws?

How could you send a no cost message to someone on the other side of the world when that person does not have a computer?

Reverse: thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

Tell your favourite fairy tale to a partner by starting at the end and working back through the story.

Describe in reverse how to boil an egg.

Unpack how your students could find information on the internet and use it to solve a problem.

Your Task thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

  • You have been commissioned to create an advertisement for a new product about to be released on the market.

  • In groups:

  • Use Scamper or Ryan’s Keys to help you decide what your product will be.

  • Sketch or make a prototype of your product on computer.

  • Create an advertisement to present to the rest of the class.

  • NB. You have thirty minutes to complete the task and be ready to present!

Make a list thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

of different

types of thinking.

  • Individually use post its.

  • Share and arrange in groups of commonality

  • Move around and look at the other tables using the Mark My Words form

Reflective thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.



  • What are my key understandings?

  • How can I develop thinking fitness in my focus group?

  • How might I develop thinking fitness in our school or centre?

  • What adaptations will I need to make to tailor this to my focus group, school or centre?

  • What resources might I need? thinking, or a task to complete and resources (thinking pathways) to follow to get them there.

  • To work in a wiki:

  • Click on “Edit this Page” at the upper left

  • Type into the page - use tables, bullet points etc to help format the layout.

  • Click “Save” on the lower rightExtra for experts

  • To insert pictures use the tree icon

  • To insert movies uploaded into Teacher Tube use the TV icon, select Teacher Tube and paste code.

Professional Reading and Research for the wondering wall questions.

Expert Jig Saw Readings

Assemble in home teams of 4. Allocate the readings.

Assemble in expert teams - sit facing out, read the article and highlight key points.Turn into the circle when completed and discuss the key points of the article.

On the relevant wiki page, write a group bullet pointed summary of the areas that the team believe should be shared (NB. You need to reach consensus so that all team members share the same information.)

Plan an example of how you could use this thinking in your class, centre, staff meeting or cluster workshop.

Return to your home team and present the information to your group referring to the wiki page as you go.

How can these questions.

help the development

of thinking in

your focus group?

  • What are my key understandings?

  • How can I develop knowledge of thinking theory and application in my focus group?

  • How might I integrate thinking in our school or centre?

  • What resources might I need? How will I access or fund these? How can my students create resources to support their own thinking?

How can that strategy questions.

(expert jig saw)

help you with

thinking in your class?

Thinking questions.




Developing questions that questions.

encourage deep thinking

  • Common Teacher Statements

  • Students can’t ask questions

  • Student questions are routine, low level

  • Students give answers they think you want to hear

  • Students are lazy thinkers - they don’t think deeply.

  • Would you give up if they were not at the right reading level?

  • Do you think they could ask good questions if . . . .?

    Dr Jeni Wilson 2007

Teachers and questions questions.

  • Teachers talk too much and ask too many questions

  • About 2 questions per minute (300-400 per day)

  • Nearly 40% managerial questions

  • Mostly short, closed questions

  • 53% stand alone (not as part of a sequence)

  • Students need to be talking more

  • Ask fewer questions as they get older

  • Mostly procedural (not thinking)

    Dr Jeni Wilson 2007

  • Examples of Student Questions questions.

  • Is vaseline solid or liquid? (NE)

  • How does God make skin around fruit? (Yr 1)

  • Why were the English so cruel to the aborigines? (Yr 3/4)

  • Do people have the right to change our destiny? (Yr 5)

  • What can people do to help peace but not become a hippy? (Yr 5/6)

  • Why don’t the rich help kids in poverty? (Yr 7)

    Dr Jeni Wilson 2007

  • So . . . . questions.

  • Expect students to ask and answer their own questions

  • Model a range of questions and make the process explicit

  • Plan in to their work the development of student questions

  • Explicitly teach developing questions

  • Set the criteria e.g.

    • Open ended

    • Focus inquiry

    • Non Judgemental

    • Have intellectual bite - Higher Order Thinking questions

    • Have emotive force

    • Aunthentic contexts

      Dr Jeni Wilson 2007

  • Scaffolding the Asking of Questions questions.

  • Use your thinking knowledge to prepare graphic organisers for developing questions e.g. Blooms, De Bono’s hats, Thinkers Keys, SCUMPS

  • Use Jamie McKenzies Toolkit - arrange your questions under the headings and see what is missing - now develop questions to fill these areas.

  • Use Harpaz & Lefsteins Fertile Questions to fertilise or enrich your questions.

Jamie McKenzie - Questioning Toolkit questions.

Essential Questions

These are questions which touch our hearts and souls. They are central to our lives. They help to define what it means to be human.

Most important thought during our lives will center on such essential questions.

* What does it mean to be a good friend?

* What kind of friend shall I be?

* Who will I include in my circle of friends?

* How shall I treat my friends?

* How do I cope with the loss of a friend?

* What can I learn about friends and friendships from the novels we read in school?

* How can I be a better friend?

If we were to draw a cluster diagram of the Questioning Toolkit, Essential Questions would be at the center of all the other types of questions. All the other questions and questioning skills serve the purpose of "casting light upon" or illuminating Essential Questions.

Most Essential Questions are interdisciplinary in nature. They cut across the lines created by schools and scholars to mark the terrain of departments and disciplines.

Essential Questions probe the deepest issues confronting us . . . complex and baffling matters which elude simple answers: Life - Death - Marriage - Identity - Purpose - Betrayal - Honor - Integrity - Courage - Temptation - Faith - Leadership - Addiction - Invention - Inspiration.

Subsidiary Questions questions.

These are questions which combine to help us build answers to our Essential Questions. Big questions spawn families of smaller questions which lead to insight. The more skillful we and our students become at formulating and then categorizing Subsidiary Questions, the more success we will have constructing new knowledge.

Hypothetical Questions questions. - These are questions designed to explore possibilities and test relationships. They usually project a theory or an option out into the future, wondering what might happen if . . .

Suppose the earth had no moon.

What if the South had won the Civil War?

Hypothetical Questions are especially helpful when trying to decide between a number of choices or when trying to solve a problem.

When we began to generate questions which would help us decide whether or not to offer e-mail accounts to our students, we asked . .

What's the worst that might happen?

What are the potential benefits?

Hypothetical Questions are useful when we want to see if our hunches, our suppositions and our hypotheses have any merit.

Telling Questions lead us (like a smart bomb) right to the target. They are built with such precision that they provide sorting and sifting during the gathering or discovery process. They focus the investigation so that we gather only the very specific evidence and information we require, only those facts which "cast light upon" or illuminate the main question at hand.

In schools which give students e-mail accounts, what is the rate of suspension for abusing the privilege?

In schools which give students e-mail accounts, what percentage of students lose their privilege during each of the first ten months? second ten months?

The better the list of telling questions generated by the researcher, the more efficient and pointed the subsequent searching and gathering process. A search strategy may be profoundly shifted by the development of telling questions.

Planning Questions questions. lift us above the action of the moment and require that we think about how we will structure our search, where we will look and what resources we might use such as time and information. Too many researchers, be they student or adult, make the mistake of burying their noses in their studies and their sources. They have trouble seeing the forest, so close do they stand to the pine needles. They are easily lost in a thicket of possibilities.

The effective researcher develops a plan of action in response to Planning Questions like these:


* Who has done the best work on this subject?

* Which medium (Internet, CD-ROM, electronic periodical collection, scholarly book, etc.) is likely to provide the most reliable and relevant information with optimal efficiency?

* Which search tool or index will speed the discovery process?


* What are all of the tasks which need completing in order to . . . ?

* What is the best way to organize these tasks over time? How much time is available? Which tasks come first, and then . . .?

* Which tasks depend upon others or cannot be completed until others are finished?


* How much time is available for this project?

* How long does it take to complete each of the tasks required?

* How much time can be applied to each task?

* How should the plan be changed to match the time resources?

Organizing Questions questions. make it possible to structure our findings into categories which will allow us to construct meaning. Each time we come upon valuable findings, we extract the relevant data and place them where they belong. Our challenge is teaching students to paraphrase, condense and then place their findings thoughtfully rather than cutting and pasting huge blocks of text which have been unread, undigested and undistilled.

Probing Questions questions. take us below the surface to the "heart of the matter.”

When it comes to information-seeking, the convergence is established by creating a logical intersection of search words and key concepts, the combination of which is most likely to identify relevant sites and articles. Probing Questions allow us to push search strategies well beyond the broad topical search to something far more pointed and powerful.

And when we first encounter an information "site," we rarely find the treasures lying out in the open within easy reach. We may need to "feel for the vein" much as the lab technician tests before drawing blood. This "feeling" is part logic, part prior knowledge, part intuition and part trial-and-error.

Sorting & Sifting Questions enable us to manage Info-Glut and Info-Garbage - the hundreds of hits and pages and files which often rise to the surface when we conduct a search - culling and keeping only the information which is pertinent and useful. Relevancy is the primary criterion employed to determine which pieces of information are saved and which are tossed overboard. We create a "net" of questions which allows all but the most important information to slide away. We then place the good information with the questions it illuminates.

* Which parts of this data are worth keeping?

* Will this information shed light on any of my questions?"

* Is this information reliable?

* How much of this information do I need to place in my database?

* How can I summarize the best information and ideas?

* Are there any especially good quotations to paste in the abstract field?

Clarification Questions questions. convert fog and smog into meaning. A collection of facts and opinions does not always make sense by itself.

Hits do not equal TRUTH. A mountain of information may do more to block understanding than promote it. Defining words and concepts is central to this clarification process.

* What do they mean by . . . ?" * How did they gather their data? Was it a reliable and valid process? Do they show the data and evidence they claim to have in support of their conclusions? Was is substantial enough to justify their conclusions?

Strategic Questions focus on Ways to Make Meaning. The researcher must switch from tool to tool and strategy to strategy while passing through unfamiliar territory. Close associated with the Planning Questions formulated early on in this process, Strategic Questions arise during the actual hunting, gathering, inferring, synthesizing and ongoing questioning process.

* What do I do next?

* How can I best approach this next step?, this next challenge? this next frustration?

* What thinking tool is most apt to help me here?

* What have I done when I've been here before? What worked or didn't work? What have others tried before me?

* What type of question would help me most with this task?

* How do I need to change my research plan?

Elaborating Questions extend and stretch the import of what we are finding. They take the explicit and see where it might lead. They also help us to plum below surface to implicit (unstated) meanings.

* What does this mean?

* What might it mean if certain conditions and circumstances changed?

* How could I take this farther? What is the logical next step? What is missing? What needs to be filled in?

* Reading between the lines, what does this REALLY mean?

* What are the implied or suggested meanings?

Unanswerable Questions questions. are the ultimate challenge.

Inventive Questions turn our findings inside out and upside down. They distort, modify, adjust, rearrange, alter, twist and turn the bits and pieces we have picked up along the way until we can shout "Aha!" and proclaim the discovery of something brand new.

Provocative Questions are meant to push, to challenge and to throw conventional wisdom off balance. They give free rein to doubt, disbelief and skepticism.

Irrelevant Questions take us far afield, distract us and threaten to divert us from the task at hand. And that is their beauty!

Divergent Questions use existing knowledge as a base from which to "kick off" like a swimmer making a turn.

Irreverent Questions explore territory which is "off-limits" or taboo. They challenge far more than conventional wisdom. They hold no respect for authority or institutions or myths. They leap over, under or through walls and rules and regulations.

e.g. Are schools the best places for students to learn?

Corporations like IBM have learned that today's heretic - the one with the courage, the tenacity and the brash conviction to question the way things are "spozed to be" - often turns out to be a prophet of sorts. The Emperor's New Clothes is the classic story showing what happens when Irreverent Questions are discouraged and obedience, subservience and compliance are prized. The emperor parades naked. The corporation clings blindly to old beliefs.

Fertile Questions questions.

  • Yoram Harpaz and Adam Lefstein in their 'Communities of Thinking' article advocate the use of fertile questions. These have the following characteristics:

  • Open - there are several different or competing answers.

  • Undermining - makes the learner question their basic assumptions.

  • Rich - Cannot be answered without careful and lengthy research. Usually able to be broken into subsidiary questions.

  • Connected - relevant to the learners.

  • Charged - has an ethical dimension

  • Practical - Is able to be researched given the available resources.

Use these characteristics to fertilise your questions

What methods of energy generation questions.

should we use in NZ?

  • Fertilise the question

  • Open - there are several different or competing answers. Yes

  • Undermining - makes the learner question their basic assumptions. No

  • Rich - Cannot be answered without careful and lengthy research. Usually able to be broken into subsidiary questions. Yes

  • Connected - relevant to the learners. No

  • Charged - has an ethical dimension No

  • Practical - Is able to be researched given the available resources. Yes

  • How could you make the question undermining, connected and charged?

Given that our current energy use questions.

is unsustainable, what options

do you believe NZ should follow,

and what part can you play?

  • What subsidiary questions would the learner need to ask?

  • What planning and organising questions?

  • What probing questions?

  • What irreverent questions?

Develop questions.




What are thinking questions.


  • More than a desire or inclination - recognise the role of attitude and emotions

  • Not a habit - not automatic - not mindless - need volition

  • They direct our abilities & motivate toward productive thinking . . .

  • Depend on classroom culture

    Dr Jeni Wilson 2007

  • Dispositions questions.

  • A bridge between ability and action

  • Precise and systematic

  • Open-minded and curious

  • Reflective and metacognitive

  • Dr Jeni Wilson 2007

  • Profile of an effective thinker ( questions.Handout)

  • . . . But what gets in the way?

  • Self confidence

  • Over generalising from own life experiences

  • First impressions - influential

  • Assumptions - ripple effect

  • Need to be right - fail to notice/give credit

  • Optimism and wishful thinking - distort reason

  • Fixations - “get stuck”

  • Dr Jeni Wilson 2007

Think of an animal . . . questions.

My thinking is like . . .

Think of a household item . . .

How is your thinking like this item?

How is your thinking not like that item?

Thinking Gears questions.

  • Adventure Gear - list 3 things that you have discovered about teaching thinking (Broad and adventurous)

  • Explanation gear - How might you use some strategies we have looked at with your students? (Make connections)

  • Proving Gear - What evidence would you look for to demo that your students have developed their thinking skills? (evidence)

  • Detective Gear - What elements of this prof dev workshop have been most useful to you so far? (wondering, prob solv, investigating - ask yourself ?s)

  • Metacognitive Gear - what are you noticing about your thinking as you move around the room? What are you wondering? (know steps that work for you)

  • Strategy Gear - What recommendations would you make to your school about ways to enhance student thinking? (make plans)

  • Kath Murdoch

Thinking questions.




Every new programme is an opportunity not to be missed!!! questions.

Exploring new


You cannot provide students with a bank of lasting computer skills!

They need strategies to unlock new technologies as they are developed and become available!

The method used to explore new programmes should be a thinking and discovering process, where students have to problem solve and work out for themselves how the programme works.

They will be guided in this process by the questions and scaffolds you give them from which to explore.

Children can learn new programmes by this method from their first few days at school.

Discovery Learning questions.

  • Every time we teach a computer skill, we miss an opportunity to develop problem solving skills and to make our students confident explorers of new technology.

  • Every time we put students in a small group to teach themselves new computer skills, we create an opportunity for collaboration, risk taking and problem solving. When we share their learning we move forward at a greater pace. We create a community of learning.

  • Explore all the toolbars.

  • Focus on the known features,

  • and then the new ones.

Philosophy for Children: questions.

Challenging our students

to think more deeply

in regular class work

Background to Philosophy for Children questions.

P4C James Nottingham Video

Saved version

Important! questions.

Students need to be aware of your learning intentions for this work or they will feel undermined and resentful.

We want them to feel undermined and challenged - to dig deep and think more.

What is a friend? questions.

A friend is . . .

4 questions.




1 Concept

2 Conflict

3 Construct

4 Consider




What is a friend? questions.

Now it’s your turn: questions.

What is a stranger?

What is a hero?

Using PIT Thinking questions.

& Questioning Toolkit to

Challenge Student Inquiry

  • What perspectives might different people hold on this issue?

  • Whattypes of questions might help you to move forward in understanding the different perspectives?

  • What information can you find to validate or refute their perspective?

  • What perspective do you now hold?

  • NZ National Parks should be kept free and accessible for all New Zealanders to enjoy.

  • What are the different potential perspectives on this?

  • What questions would we need to ask ourselves in order to understand the different perspectives?

  • What research would we need to do to provide evidence for each view?

  • Now make you personal choice and justify/debate.

5 Whys New Zealanders to enjoy.

  • Encourages students to go deeper in their thinking

  • Requires students to explain their thinking and reasoning

I think that students tend to be superficial in their thinking.

Why do you think students are superficial in their thinking?

I think they tend to repeat the information they find.

Why do they need to do more than just repeat the information they find?

They need to process it in order to understand and apply their new learning.

Why do they need to apply their new learning?

Because learning requires a change in thinking or action or else it is meaningless.

Why do you want them to change in their thinking or actions?

Because in order to improve or increase achievement there needs to be movement or change, so we need to teach then how to do that, and make it a requirement.

Why do you think that explicit emphasis on thinking will make a difference?

Because students won’t change their processing or go deeper unless they see benefit in doing that, and in order for them to want to we need to show them that they can and how to go about it.

Yes New Zealanders to enjoy.

5 Whys


  • We should have more wind powered electricity generation in NZ.

  • We should not have more wind powered generation in NZ

  • The use of ICT is not necessary at school.

  • The use of ICT is essential at school.

Questions that challenge New Zealanders to enjoy.

student thinking

  • Why . . . ? (5 Whys strategy)

  • What would happen if . . . ?

  • How can we plan to avoid . . . ?

  • Who should be responsible for . . . ?

  • Why did . . . ?

  • What can you do about . . . ?

  • How would you feel if . . . ?

  • What possible reasons might there be for . . . ?

  • What evidence do you have to support your view that . . . ?

  • How could you gather evidence to support / challenge the view that . . . ?

* New Zealanders to enjoy.

Socratic questions that

challenge student thinking

  • Questions of Clarification

    • What do you mean by that?

    • Can you give me an example?

  • Questions that probe assumptions

    • What is being assumed?

    • Why would somebody say that?

  • Questions that probe reason and evidence

    • What are your reasons for saying that?

    • What criteria do you base that argument on?

  • Questions that probe implications and consequences

    • What might be the consequences of behaving like that?

    • Do you think you might be jumping to conclusions?

  • Questions about viewpoints or perspectives

    • What would be another way of saying that?

    • How do Maria’s ideas differ from Peter’s

  • Questions about questions

    • How is that question going to help us?

    • Can you think of any other questions that might be useful?

*Questions which probe underlying logic or structure of our thinking and enable us to make reasonable judgements.

The situation

Sample Inquiry Presentation New Zealanders to enjoy.

The Situation

How could you challenge

and enrich their thinking?

It is the year 2222 and in 5 more years humans will no longer be able to live on Earth.

Your task
Your Task New Zealanders to enjoy.

You have been asked by NASA to help them with their research to find another planet for humans to live on. Choose a planet and find out whether humans would be able to live there.

You will need to include the following information; New Zealanders to enjoy.

- Which planet have you chosen?

- Where it is in the solar system?

- What is it like on the surface? (eg rocky, sandy, watery)

- What is the temperature?

- What is the air like? (eg is there oxygen there for humans to breathe?)

- What modifications could be made to allow humans to live there? (eg space suits, atmospheric domes, growing food)

Where is neptune
Where is Neptune? New Zealanders to enjoy.

  • 8th planet in the Solar System

  • Neptune is 30 times farther from the sun than Earth

  • It takes 165 years to orbit the Sun

What is neptune like
What is Neptune like? New Zealanders to enjoy.

  • It could fit 60 Earths in it

  • It is 101,076 km around the planet

  • Neptune is round

  • Neptune is blue

What is it like on neptune
What is it like on Neptune? New Zealanders to enjoy.

  • It is slippery and hard and wet

  • It is made from ice and liquid methane

  • It is -210 C on Neptune

What is the atmosphere like
What is the atmosphere like? New Zealanders to enjoy.

  • The stormiest planet is Neptune.

  • Neptune's air is windy.

Interesting facts
Interesting facts New Zealanders to enjoy.

  • It has the most powerful hurricanes .

  • Neptune has the strongest winds.

  • Neptune has poisonous clouds.

  • Neptune has a surface of icy cold liquid.

  • Neptune has eight moons.

Would humans be able to live on neptune
Would Humans Be Able New Zealanders to enjoy.To Live On Neptune?

  • No - it is too stormy, it has an ice surface and would be too cold and the gas is not good for humans to breathe

What's missing? New Zealanders to enjoy.

You have been asked by NASA to help them with their research to find another planet for humans to live on. Choose a planet and find out whether humans would be able to live there.

How could P4C

take thinking

to the next level

in this inquiry?

What inquiry will your class/staff New Zealanders to enjoy.

be working on next term

and how can you challenge their thinking?

What are the

different perspectives?

Marine Reserves New Zealanders to enjoy.

Wind Power Generation

Wood / Coal burner fires

Assessment rubrics New Zealanders to enjoy.

Scaffolding the Thinking New Zealanders to enjoy.

  • Graphic organisers

  • Acronyms

  • Flow diagrams

  • Mind mapping / Concept mapping

  • ICT Software

Graphic Organisers New Zealanders to enjoy.

ize New Zealanders to enjoy.

















Inspiration New Zealanders to enjoy.

Mind Mapping Software

Kidspiration New Zealanders to enjoy.

Junior Mind Mapping Software

CMap Tools New Zealanders to enjoy.

Free concept mapping software New Zealanders to enjoy.

Reason Able - Rationale PC users only. Sadly no Mac version is available yet. This looks to be a most interesting programme designed to support kids with developing argument and different perspectives that would be ideal for learner-centered problem-based learning  requiring students to develop deep thinking about problem and to explore issues. Excellent for designing debate and reviewing all angles.


Choose one of the mapping software programmes that you have not used before.

Work out how to use the programme and then . . .

Develop a map of the new ideas you have gained today, and how you will apply these in your focus area next term.

Use another software programme to map out the range of thinking types that you could develop with your focus group.

Use “Rationale” to create a PUS diagram for this statement:

If we want to make change to our world, we need to teach our students to think in different ways.




Collaborative not used before.



Collaborative not used before.



  • The Task:

  • Use either Kid Pix Studio or Paint and PowerPoint to

  • create an animation sequence of not more than 10 slides to show

  • how day and night occur on Planet Earthor

  • how a lunar eclipse occurs(You will need to put a one second delay between the slides to create the animation effect.)

Day and Night not used before.

Use Kid Pix to make an animated show that explains why we have day and night.

Animations are made by having multi copies of pictures and modifying each slightly with a 1 second delay between slides to create movement.

The Theorem of not used before.


Make a multimedia presentation to demonstrate Pythagoras Theorem.

Use the internet if necessary to find out background information.

The Theorem of not used before.


What is the not used before.

value of x?

X cm


4 cm

5X5=25 not used before.

x = 5


Pythagoras Theorem

In a right angle triangle, the square on the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares on the other two sides.


9 + 16 = 25

A Tale with A Twist not used before.

  • Use the digital camera and PowerPoint to tell a story that has an unusual twist.

    • You cannot use any words – only photos

    • You must use exactly 12 photos

    • The photos must be used in the order in which they are taken (therefore you need to storyboard before you begin shooting)

Presenting . . . not used before.

Romance in the Rain

Web based not used before.



More Online Thinking Fitness not used before.

To answer these questions, you have to let your brain think in different ways than you may be used to. Here's an example:

Question: A girl who was just learning to drive went down a one-way street in the wrong direction, but didn't break the law. How come?

See if you can let your brain switch directions to answer these questions:

1. How can you throw a ball as hard as you can and have it come back to you, even if it doesn't hit anything, there is nothing attached to it, and no one else catches or throws it?

2. Two students are sitting on opposite sides of the same desk. There is nothing in between them but the desk. Why can't they see each other?

Lateral Thinking not used before.

Outsmarting the Donkey

Q Amir tied two sacks of salt to the back of his donkey and headed for the market to sell the salt. On the way, Amir and the donkey passed a stream. The donkey jumped in to cool himself. As a result, much of the salt dissolved into the water, ruining the salt for Amir but improving matters for the donkey because his load became much lighter. Amir tried to get to the market on the following days, but the donkey always ruined the salt. Finally, Amir decided to teach the donkey a lesson. He once again set out with the donkey and the two sacks.

What did Amir do differently this time so that after that day the donkey stopped taking a swim?

A Amir loaded the sacks not with salt but with sand. When the donkey jumped in the stream and got the sacks wet, they became much heavier.

Reasoning not used before.

Flat Tyre

Q Two friends were driving on the highway when they got a flat tyre. First they took off the hubcap. Then they unscrewed the four lug nuts — the screws that hold the tyre in place. They put the inverted hubcap down on the road and carefully placed the lug nuts inside the hubcap. Then they removed the flat.

As they were in the process of putting on the spare tyre, another car came along, hitting the hubcap and scattering the four lug nuts where they could not be found. The driver of the other car felt sorry, so he stopped to help. The two friends followed his advice, and in a little while they were back on the road again. What did the man tell them?

A The man told the two friends to take one lug nut off each of the other three tyres and use them to hold the spare tyre in place. (Later they could buy four more lug nuts so that each tyre would have four again.)

Logic not used before.

Catching the Bus

Q Every morning when Aldo, Brenda, and Cory line up at the bus stop, they can choose between two buses — one yellow and one blue.

1. Whenever Aldo takes the yellow bus, Brenda and Cory take the same bus as each other.

2. If Brenda takes the yellow bus, Aldo and Cory take different buses from each other.

3. If Cory takes the blue bus, Aldo takes the same bus as Brenda.

Which of the three kids always takes the same bus? What color is it?

A Aldo always takes the blue bus.

STRATEGY: Make a table that shows the choices for Aldo. He can either take yellow or blue. If he takes yellow, there are two options for Brenda and Cory. If he takes blue, there are four choices for Brenda and Cory.

Aldo Brenda Cory

A yellow yellow yellow

B yellow blue blue

C blue blue blue

D blue yellow yellow

E blue yellow blue

F blue blue yellow

Now go back to the information in the problem and eliminate the impossible cases. Number 2 makes case A and E impossible, so cross them out. Number 3 makes case B impossible, so cross that out. That leaves only cases D and F. Aldo takes the blue bus in both.

Spatial Awareness not used before.

Exactly Two


Draw a grid made up of six horizontal squares and six vertical squares.

The grid will have 36 squares. Place 12 counters on the grid, one to a square, so that each of the six horizontals, each of the six verticals, and each of the two diagonals contains exactly two counters.

Word and Letter Play not used before.

Anagram Rhyme

Q Will Shortz, a famous puzzlemaster, created this one: For each of the following four words, come up with another English word that uses all THE SAME letters but in a different order. The four words you come up with will rhyme with one another.










STRATEGY: Look for a pattern in the letters – what is the same in each that could rhyme?

Number & Maths Play not used before.

Balancing Act

Q Scales #1 and #2 are in perfect balance. How many Xs must you put on the right side of Scale #3 to make it balance?

Scale #1

Left side: XXYZ Right side: XXXXY

Scale #2

Left side: YYYY Right side: XXZZ

Scale #3

Left side: YYZ Right side: ?

A 5 Xs. If you know algebra, you can figure this out by setting up an equation, expressing Y and Z in terms of X's. But you don't need to use algebra if your thinking goes like this:

1. From Scale #1, you can figure out that Z=2X, because the Z on the left side has been replaced by 2 Xs on the right side.

2. Next, say that X=2 and Z=4. That would put a 12 on the right side of Scale #2, which means that Y must equal 3 to make the left side of Scale #2 the same as the right side (4×3=12).

3. Now you know that the left side of Scale #3=10 (3+3+4=10). Since X=2, the right side of Scale #3 must have 5 Xs in order to equal 10 (5×2=10).

By the way, it doesn't matter which numbers you use. Just so you make sure that Z=2X, you'll always come out with 5 Xs on the right side of Scale #3. Go ahead-try it with X=4 and Z=8, and you'll see.

Source: Barnes and Noble, Mensa Mind Games for Kids, p.18

Stop not used before.

Be cautious about


So what thinking strategies will you use in your focus area next week?

Revisit the not used before.

Wonderings Wall

Resources not used before.

  • A collaborative wiki for building resources, knowledge and ideas for enriching thinking


  • James Nottingham - P4C - Into the PIT.


  • Social bookmarking

Jill Hammonds

Core Education

[email protected]

Go to it . . . not used before.

and have fun

Jill Hammonds - National Facilitator - CORE Education