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SURVEY OF BIOCHEMISTRY Glycolysis. Announcements. Exam #2 on June 26 Chapters 7, 8, 11, 12, 14 Bring calculators Study Session with Vonda Thursday, June 26; 2-3:45 pm Boggs 228. Introduction to Glycolysis. Glycolysis: breakdown of sugars Primary start point = glucose

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Announcements
Announcements

  • Exam #2 on June 26

    • Chapters 7, 8, 11, 12, 14

  • Bring calculators

  • Study Session with Vonda

    • Thursday, June 26; 2-3:45 pm

    • Boggs 228


Introduction to glycolysis
Introduction to Glycolysis

  • Glycolysis: breakdown of sugars

  • Primary start point = glucose

  • 10 enzymatic reactions


Overview
Overview

  • Stage I of Glycolysis

  • 2 ATP’s invested

  • 1 Glucose is brokeninto 2 phosphorylated molecules


Overview1
Overview

  • Stage II of Glycolysis

  • 4 ATP’s recovered

  • 2 NADH’s produced

  • GAP is converted to pyruvate


Enzymes in glycolysis stage i energy investment
Enzymes in GlycolysisStage I: Energy Investment

  • Hexokinase

    • Uses ATP

  • Phosphoglucose Isomerase [PGI]

  • Phosphofructokinase [PFK]

    • Uses ATP

  • Aldolase

    • Splits 6C into two 3C molecules

  • Triose Phosphate Isomerase [TIM]


Enzymes in glycolysis stage ii energy recovery
Enzymes in GlycolysisStage II: Energy Recovery

  • Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

    • Uses NAD+ to form NADH

  • Phosphoglycerate Kinase [PGK]

    • Forms ATP (2 molecules)

  • Phosphoglycerate Mutase [PGM]

  • Enolase

    • Forms high energy molecule

  • Pyruvate Kinase [PK]

    • Forms ATP (2 molecules)

Classify theseon board


Key mechanisms
Key Mechanisms

  • Kinases: Transfer PO32- to substrate

  • Phosphoglucose Isomerase

  • Aldolase

  • GAP Dehydrogenase

  • Phosphoglycerate Mutase


Example of kinase activity
Example of Kinase Activity

Step 1: Hexokinase


Phosphoglucose isomerase reaction mechanism
Phosphoglucose IsomeraseReaction Mechanism

Step 2


Pgi reaction mechanism
PGI Reaction Mechanism

BaseCatalysis


Pgi reaction mechanism1
PGI Reaction Mechanism

AcidCatalysis


Pgi reaction mechanism2
PGI Reaction Mechanism

Base catalyzes ring closure

H+


Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase
Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

Step 6

Remember:Glycolysis produces 2 molecules of GAP, and therefore 2 molecules of NADH





Gap dehydrogenase mechanism3
GAP Dehydrogenase Mechanism

PhosphateBinding

Pi







Survey of biochemistry glycolysis
PRS

  • What is the maximum number of O2 molecules that hemoglobin can bind?

  • One

  • Two

  • Three

  • Four


Survey of biochemistry glycolysis
PRS

  • B cells mature in the ________.

  • Thymus

  • Bone marrow

  • Muscle tissue

  • Myosin


Survey of biochemistry glycolysis
PRS

  • Oxygen binding to myoglobin results in what shaped curve?

  • Sigmoidal

  • Hyperbolic

  • Linear

  • Sinusoidal


Survey of biochemistry glycolysis
PRS

  • Which of the following amino acids is not in the catalytic triad of serine proteases?

  • Ser

  • Thr

  • His

  • Asp


Survey of biochemistry glycolysis
PRS

  • What is Km?

  • The catalytic efficiency

  • The catalytic rate constant

  • 1/2 Vmax

  • [S] at 1/2 Vmax