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Leadership FOR Change A Review of Key Change Concepts A Brief Look at Key Leadership Practices. West Virginia 21 st Century Leadership for 21 st Century Schools November, 2007. Jerry Valentine Professor of School Leadership Director, Middle Level Leadership Center University of Missouri.

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Leadership for change a review of key change concepts a brief look at key leadership practices

Leadership FOR ChangeA Review of Key Change ConceptsA Brief Look at Key Leadership Practices

West Virginia 21st Century

Leadership for 21st Century Schools

November, 2007

Jerry Valentine

Professor of School Leadership

Director, Middle Level Leadership Center

University of Missouri

Morning general session gerrita postlewait
Morning General Session: Gerrita Postlewait

  • Leaders create a purposeful community within the school…

  • Focus on the right things…

  • Know how to lead change…

  • So, let’s look at “Leadership FOR Change” for a few minutes…

A review 1 st 2 nd order change
A Review: 1st & 2nd Order Change

  • First Order

    • Incremental

    • “Next most obvious step”

    • Relatively quick-fix solutions

    • Address simple problems where traditional solutions suffice

    • Single-loop learning where previous strategies will work

  • Second Order

    • Significant departure from the norm

    • Deep change affecting values, beliefs and assumptions

    • Slow, evolving process over time

    • Addresses complex problems requiring new, thoughtful, and often creative comprehensive solutions

    • Double-loop learning where new strategies are needed to solve the problem

    • Becomes institutionalized in the culture of the organization

Another perspective of change lewin s freeze unfreeze refreeze model of change
Another Perspective of Change: Lewin’s Freeze/Unfreeze/Refreeze Model of Change

Ice flow freezes thaws reshapes refreezes with the environment sun shade current depth
Ice Flow: Freezes, Thaws, Reshapes, Refreezes with the EnvironmentSun/Shade Current/Depth

Freeze unfreeze interpretation
Freeze-Unfreeze Interpretation Environment

  • Freeze is our current state

  • Unfreeze is the time spent to help the school become receptive to change

  • Transition is the actual implementation of the change

  • Refreezing is stabilizing the organization so the new change can be internalized and on-going until it needs to be changed

Same concept different visual
Same Concept, Different Visual Environment

Lewin’s Three Stages of Change:

Current State Unfreeze Transition Freeze

Three common change models
Three Common Change Models Environment

  • Authoritative (Top Down)

  • Strategic (Established Sequential Steps)

  • Transformational (Capacity Building)

    Transformational leadership with flexible strategies understood by all is usually necessary to achieve lasting, second-order change

Authoritative historical commonly used strategy for change
Authoritative: Historical, Commonly Used Strategy for Change Environment

  • Increase Driving Forces

  • Increase incentives, power, authority

  • Decrease Resisting Forces

  • Decrease fear, anxiety

  • If resistance was low, leaders increased drive;

  • If resistance was high, leaders increased drive while trying to decrease resistance

  • Basically…change was MANDATED!

On going emotions of school change
On-going Emotions of School Change Environment

Staff Anxiety

High Low

Comfort w/ on-going change

Comfort with

current conditions

Temporary Optimism


Realization of needed change

Engagement & Problem Solving

Frustrations of implementing the change

Realization of urgency for change


Practical stages of strategic capacity building change
Practical Stages of Strategic, Capacity-Building Change Environment

  • Build the Sense of Need and Urgency

    • Establish knowledge, understanding, and realization of need for change (collaborative conversations)

  • Empower Personnel

    • Establish participative, problem-solving conversations across teams, task groups, and whole faculty (collaborative conversations)

  • Build Direction and Unity of Purpose via Comprehensive Visions

    • Establish goals and strategies involving all faculty throughout the process (collaborative conversations)

  • Monitor, Measure, and Assess Progress toward Visions

    • Engage all staff in the collection and analysis of various forms of data to monitor and change as needed (collaborative conversations)

Four stages of change under transformational leadership
Four Stages of Change under Transformational Leadership Environment

  • Making a compelling case for change (intellectual stimulation and clarifying existing values and beliefs)

  • Inspiring a shared vision to guide the change (broad-based input for direction setting)

  • Leading the change with a sense of urgency (maintain momentum and provide energy and inspiration)

  • Embedding the change (internalize the change into the culture while fostering continuous change)

  • Adapted from Ian Hay www.weleadinlearning.org/transformationalleadership.htm

Social significance
Social Significance Environment

Successful change strategies are…

Socially based and

Action oriented

Fullan 2006

Leadership for change a review of key change concepts a brief look at key leadership practices

Collaborative Environment Conversations

Collaborative Actions

Professional Relationships




School Change

Professional Community

Staff capacity
Staff Capacity Environment

Assume that lack of personal and group capacity is the problem….

and work on it continuously.

  • Fullan, 2005

Empowerment supports three personnel concepts important to change
Empowerment Supports Three Personnel Concepts Important to Change

  • Self-imposed Accountability

    • Take ownership of their roles/responsibilities

    • Share information and seek feedback

    • Communicate more often and thus make better decisions

    • Establish high standards and value reaching these standards.

  • Collaboration

    • Teachers like to work with colleagues

    • Interpersonal relationships grow

    • Collegial support increases

    • Teachers develop a sense of belonging

  • Initiative

    • Teachers feel what they do matters (worth/value)

    • Teachers believe they can make a difference (self-efficacy)

    • Teachers share ideas and suggestions

    • Expectations of success produce energy for extra effort and persistence under pressure.

      Adapted from Fullan 2006 and Kanter 2004

Individualized support of staff
Individualized Support of Staff Change

When studying factors that influence achievement:

  • The difference (variance) among teachers in a school can be two to three times as great as the variance among schools.

  • Naturally occurring teacher effects on achievement are greater than naturally occurring school effects on achievement.

  • In poverty schools, the difference is even greater than in affluent schools.

  • Nye, Konstantopoules, Hedges 2004

Quality staff
Quality Staff Change

  • Individualized support to build the quality of teachers on the bus….because……

  • Variations in achievement are greater across classrooms within a school than across schools.

  • Fullan 2006

The big picture of meaningful school change
The Big Picture of Meaningful School Change Change

  • Set Directions and Build Commitment through Meaningful Involvement

  • Develop Individuals, Teams, and Whole Faculty

  • Redesign the Organization, Internalize the Specific Changes into the Culture (Second-Order)

  • Internalize the “Change Process”…It has to become CONTINUOUS (a part of the culture)

References and recommended readings
References and Recommended Readings Change

  • Berliner, David (2005). Our Impoverished View of Educational Reform. Teachers College Record, August>

  • Cotton, Kathleen (2003). Principals and Student Achievement: What the Research Says, ASCD.

  • Danielson, Charlotte (2003). Enhancing Student Achievement: A Framework for School Improvement, ASCD.

  • DuFour, Richard, et al. (2004). Whatever It Takes, National Education Service.

  • DuFour, Richard, et al., Eds. (2005). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities, National Education Service.

  • Fullan, Michael (2003). The Moral Imperative of School Leadership, Ontario Principals Council/Corwin Press.

  • Fullan, Michael, et al. (2006). Breakthrough, Corwin Press.

  • Fullan, Michael (2006). Turnaround Leadership, Jossey-Bass.

  • Hargreaves, A. and Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable Leadership. Jossey-Bass.

Recommended readings
Recommended Readings Change

  • Hopkins, David, et al. (1994). School Improvement in an Era of Change, Teachers College Press.

  • Kanter, R. (2004). Confidence: How Winning and Losing Streaks Begin and End. Corwin Press.

  • Lambert, Linda (2003). Leadership Capacity for School Improvement, ASCD.

  • Leithwood, Kenneth et al. Eds. (2000). Organizational Learning in Schools, Swets & Zeitlinger Publishing.

  • Leithwood, Kenneth, et al. (2001). Making Schools Smarter: A System for Monitoring School and District Progress, Corwin Press.

  • Leithwood, Kenneth, et al., Eds. (2006). Teaching for Deep Understanding: What Every Educator Should Know, Corwin Press.

  • Leithwood, Kenneth. (2005) Teacher Working Conditions that Matter. Toronto: Elementary Teacher Federation of Ontario.

  • Marzano, Robert, et al. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, ASCD.

  • Marzano, Robert (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action, ASCD.

Recommended readings1
Recommended Readings Change

  • Marzano, Robert (2005). School Leadership that Works: From Research to Results ASCD/McREL.

  • Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. (2004) How Large are the Teacher Effects! Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, #26.

  • Painter, Bryan, et al. (1999). Engaging Teachers in the School Improvement Process, NASSP/Middle Level Leadership Center, University of Missouri.

  • Painter, Bryan, et al. (2000). The Use of Teams in the School Improvement Process, NASSP/Middle Level Leadership Center, University of Missouri.

  • Pheffer, J. & Sutton, R. (2000) The Knowing-Doing Gap, Harvard Business School Press.

  • Quinn, David, et al. (1999). Using Data for School Improvement, NASSP/Middle Level Leadership Center, University of Missouri.

  • Reeves, Douglas (2006). The Learning Leader: How to Focus School Improvement for Better Schools, ASCD.

  • Tschannen-Moran, Megan (2004). Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, Jossey-Bass.

Recommended readings2
Recommended Readings Change

  • Valentine, Jerry (2001) Frameworks for School Improvement: A Synthesis of Essential Concepts, International Confederation of Principals Recommended Web Reading or Queensland Elementary Journal 2002, or Middle Level Leadership Center, University of Missouri.

  • Valentine, Jerry, et al. (2004). Leadership for Highly Successful Middle Level Schools, NASSP.

  • Valentine, Jerry, et al. (2006). Project ASSIST: A Comprehensive, Systemic Change Initiative for Middle Level Schools, Paper presented at American Educational Research Association Annual Conference, San Francisco, April. (Available from author or at Middle Level Leadership Center web site).

  • Wheatley, Margaret (2005). Finding Our Way: Leadership for an Uncertain Time, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

  • York-Barr, Jennifer, et al. (2006). Reflective Practice to Improve Schools: An Action guide for Educators, Corwin Press.

Jerry Valentine, Middle Level Leadership Center, 211 Hill Hall, University of Missouri (573) 882-0944 ValentineJ@missouri.edu www.MLLC.org

Extra info
Extra Info Change

  • The following slides are extra slides provided as a resource for your efforts for change.

Primary conditions for organizations to make sense of complex circumstances
Primary Conditions for Organizations to Make Sense of Complex Circumstances


    • Who are we and what do we stand for (values, beliefs)


    • Flow of quality information with the purpose of creating shared knowledge and eventually shared wisdom.


    • Pathways to intelligence and commitment for without them nothing happens

      Margaret Wheatley 2005

7 principles of sustainable leadership
7 Principles of Sustainable Leadership Complex Circumstances

  • DEPTH (SL matters; it makes a difference)

  • LENGTH (SL endures; makes a difference over time)

  • BREADTH (SL spreads; diffuses across the organization)

  • JUSTICE (SL does no harm to and actually improves the surrounding environment)

  • DIVERSITY (SL promotes cohesive diversity)

  • RESOURCEFULNESS (SL develops and does not deplete internal and human resources)

  • CONVERSATION (SL honors and learns from the best of the past to create an even better future)

    Hargreaves and Fink 2006

During times of change in education
During Times of Change in Education… Complex Circumstances

it is essential that school leaders understand the process of change

and the human dynamics of change.

Power changes during change
Power Changes during Change Complex Circumstances

  • Implementing change processes, (such as creating a leadership team, SI Team, or “think-tank team”) means a change in perceived power for teachers who were in influential positions (such as team leaders or department chairs).

  • Such changes can obviously create resentment or negativity toward the change process.

School improvement team
School Improvement Team Complex Circumstances

  • Develop and maintain a school improvement team that leads the faculty and champions continuous improvement

    • Enlist respected, quality, teacher-leaders who care

    • Participate in each session—make this your priority

    • Help the Team become the school’s ”think tank”

    • Help the team build the capacity to analyze, problem solve, and design for change

    • Work as a member of the team to lead the faculty in visioning, problem-solving, and designing change

    • Principals directly influence the success of the SI Team, and thus the engagement of the whole faculty

Support and resources
Support and Resources Complex Circumstances

  • Most schools need outside expertise/support to identify sources of knowledge and facilitate school improvement activities

  • Most meaningful school improvement requires

    • personnel changes

    • curricular and program changes

    • professional development

    • time and patience

Why teachers resist change
Why Teachers Resist Change Complex Circumstances

  • Lack of trust

  • Absence of belief change is needed

  • Believe change is not feasible

  • Cost of change may shift resources

  • Loss of status or power

  • Threat to existing values and ideals

  • Resentment of interference

  • Adapted from Yukl, 1998

Factors that affect teacher motivation and performance
Factors that Affect Teacher Motivation and Performance Complex Circumstances

  • Sense of self-efficacy

  • Sense of collective efficacy

  • Sense of collective commitment

  • Job satisfaction

  • Stress and burnout

  • Morale

  • Engagement with the school & profession

  • Professional knowledge (content and pedagogy)

  • Fullan (2006); Leithwood (2005)

Barriers to collective change
Barriers to Collective Change Complex Circumstances

  • When talk and planning replace action

  • When memory of what we did, what worked and what did not override new thought

  • When fear, anxiety, or stubbornness prevents action grounded in knowledge and reflection

  • When measurement impedes the use of good judgment

  • When internal competition and blame-pointing override cooperation and relationship building.

    Adapted from Pfeffer & Sutton 2000

Changing minds
Changing Minds Complex Circumstances

  • When changing someone’s mind, connect to their reality as the point of departure.

  • To change another’s mind, don’t espouse your own point of view…

  • Rather, engage the psyche of the other person.

  • Command and control strategies for change get results, but only for a short time and to a degree.

  • Adapted from Gardner, 2004; Fullan 2006