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13. Leadership and Change. Chapter. “There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain of success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.” ~ Nicolo Machiavelli, writer. Introduction.

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Leadership and change


Leadership and Change


  • “There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain of success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.”

  • ~ Nicolo Machiavelli, writer


  • Although leading change is perhaps the most difficult challenge facing any leader, it may be the best differentiator of managers from leaders and of mediocre from exceptional leaders.

  • To successfully lead larger-scale change initiatives, leaders must attend to the situational and follower factors affecting their group or organization.

Leadership and management revisited again
Leadership and Management: Revisited Again

  • Leadership: Being more concerned with doing the right thing and management is being more concerned with doing things right.

    • Organizational systems are fairly resistant to change.

    • Followers prefer to have a predictable path.

  • Leadership is key to aligning organizational systems and follower behavior around a new organizational vision.

    • It takes a combination of both leadership and management skills to successfully implement any change effort.

The rational approach to organizational change
The Rational Approach to Organizational Change

C = D x M x P > R

  • D = Dissatisfaction

  • M = Model

  • P = Process

  • R = Resistance

  • C = Amount of change

  • The D x M x P is a multiplicative function.

  • The model maintains that organizational change is a very systematic process and large-scale changes can take months if not years to implement.

Dissatisfaction d
Dissatisfaction (D)

  • Followers who are relatively content are not apt to change; malcontents are much more likely to do something to change the situation.

  • Follower’s emotions are the fuel for organizational change, and change often requires a considerable amount of fuel.

  • The key for leadership practitioners is to increase dissatisfaction to the point where followers are inclined to take action, but not so much that they decide to leave the organization.

Model m
Model (M)

  • Four components include:

    • Environmental scanning

    • Vision

    • Setting new goals to support the vision

    • Identifying needed system changes

      • Systems thinking approach

      • Siloed thinking

Process p
Process (P)

  • The change initiative becomes tangible and actionable because it consists of the development and execution of the change plan.

  • Change will only occur when the action steps outlined in the plan are actually carried out.

  • The best way to get followers committed to a change plan is to have them create it.

  • Leaders who address shifts in styles and inappropriate behaviors in a swift and consistent manner are more likely to succeed with their change initiatives.

Charismatic and transformational leadership
Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Interactional Framework

  • Charismatic leaders are passionate, driven individuals who are able to paint a compelling vision of the future.

  • The combination of a compelling vision, heightened emotional levels, and strong personal attachments often compels followers to put forth greater effort to meet organizational or societal challenges.

  • Charismatic movements can result in positive or negative organizational or societal changes.

Charismatic leadership a historical review
Charismatic Leadership: A Historical Review Interactional Framework

  • Max Weber maintained that societies could be categorized into one of three types of authority systems:

    • Traditional authority system

    • Legal-rational authority system

    • Charismatic authority system

  • James MacGregor Burns believed that leadership could take one of two forms:

    • Transactional leadership

    • Transformational leadership

      • Reframing

Charismatic leadership a historical review continued
Charismatic Leadership: A Historical Review (continued) Interactional Framework

  • All transformational leaders are charismatic, but not all charismatic leaders are transformational.

  • Three newer theories of charismatic or transformational leadership:

    • Conger and Kanungo Theory.

    • House, Shamir, and Arthur Theory.

    • Bass’s Theory of Transactional and Transformational Leadership.

Common characteristics of charismatic and transformational leaders
Common Characteristics of Charismatic and Transformational Leaders

  • Vision:

    • Common perceptual framework.

  • Rhetorical Skills: Heighten followers’ emotional levels and inspire them to embrace the vision.

  • Image and trust building

  • Personalized leadership: These leaders share strong, personal bonds with followers, even when the leader occupies a formal organizational role.

Follower characteristics
Follower Characteristics Leaders

  • Charisma is probably more a function of the followers’ reactions to a leader than of the leader’s personal characteristics.

  • Four unique characteristics of the reactions that followers have toward leaders:

    • Identification with the leader and the vision.

    • Heightened emotional levels.

    • Willing subordination to the leader.

    • Feelings of empowerment.

Situational characteristics
Situational Characteristics Leaders

  • Situational factors play an important role in determining whether a leader is perceived as charismatic.

  • Situational factors believed to affect charismatic leadership:

    • Crises

    • Task interdependence and social networks

    • Other situational characteristics

      • Organizations placing a premium on innovation

      • Outscoring and organizational downsizing

      • Time

Concluding thoughts about the characteristics of charismatic and transformational leadership
Concluding Thoughts about the Characteristics of Charismatic and Transformational Leadership

  • Charismatic leadership is most fully understood when we consider how leader and situational factors affect the attribution process.

  • It is unlikely that all the characteristics of charismatic leadership need to be present before charisma is attributed to a leader.

  • Charismatic leadership can happen anywhere.

  • It is possible to attribute charisma to an individual based solely on his or her position or celebrity status.

  • Overwhelming evidence supports that charismatic or transformational leaders are more effective than their noncharismatic counterparts.

Bass s theory of transformational and transactional leadership
Bass’s Theory of Transformational and Transactional Leadership

  • Transformational leaders: More successful due to followers’ heightened emotional levels and willingness to work toward.

  • Transactional leaders: Believed to motivate followers by setting goals and promising rewards for desired performance.

    • Transformational and transactional leadership consists of two independent leadership dimensions.

  • Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire:

    • Assesses extent of transformational or transactional leadership and extent of followers’ satisfaction with and belief in effectiveness of their leader.

Research results of transformational and transactional leadership
Research Results of Transformational and Transactional Leadership

  • Transformational leadership can be observed in all countries, institutions, and organizational levels, but was more prevalent in public institutions and at lower organizational levels.

  • Transformational leadership is a significantly better predictor of organizational effectiveness than transactional or laissez-faire leadership.

  • Laissez-faire leadership was negatively correlated with effectiveness.

  • Possible for leaders to systematically develop their transformational and transactional leadership skills.

  • The fact remains that charisma ultimately exists in the eyes of the beholder.

Leadership and change
Correlations between Five Factor Model Dimensions and Charismatic Leadership Characteristics for 125 Corporate CEOs and Presidents

Summary Charismatic Leadership Characteristics for 125 Corporate CEOs and Presidents

  • Management skills are important to ensure compliance with existing systems, processes, and procedures.

  • Leadership skills are needed when changes need to be made to existing systems and processes.

  • Rational approach: Emphasizes analytic planning and management skills

  • Emotional approach: Emphasizes leadership skills, leader-follower relationships, and the presence of a crisis to drive organizational change.