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Organic Compounds. Made of carbon and hydrogen. Carbon easily shares 4 electrons. Easily forms chains or rings. Glucose. The most important elements in living things: C H N O P S Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur.

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organic compounds

Organic Compounds

Made of carbon and hydrogen

carbon easily shares 4 electrons
Carbon easily shares 4 electrons
  • Easily forms chains or rings


The most important elements in living things:
  • C H N O P S

Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur

4 types of organic compounds
4 Types of Organic Compounds
  • Carbohydrate

Carbon and Water

Elements- C, H, O always in a

1:2:1 ratio

Monomer- Monosaccharide

(one sugar)


Most important organic molecule in the human body is glucose

Glucose, fructose,

and galactose are




Glucose and fructose bonded together forms a disaccharide, sucrose.

dehydration synthesis also called a condensation reaction
Dehydration Synthesis also called a Condensation Reaction
  • Joins monomers together by removing a molecule of water


hydrolysis reaction
Hydrolysis Reaction
  • Water Splitting
  • Breaks polymers down into monomers by adding water
  • Digestion is hydrolysis. Monomers can then be absorbed by the body

Cellulose in plant cell wall-fiber in your diet

Starch is how plants

store glucose

Glycogen is how

animals store glucose

Uses or functions of carbs-

Quick Energy, Cell Walls

  • Examples-bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, sugar
  • Atheletes are fed carbohydrates before the big game because as the bonds in the food are broken down, energy is released
  • Sugar suffix = -ose (glucose, sucrose, maltose)
2 lipids
Carboxyl group makes

fatty acid

2. Lipids
  • Elements-C, H, O containing way more carbon and hydrogen than oxygen
  • Monomers-Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids









Fatty Acid

Fatty Acid

Fatty Acid

Insoluble in water

Use or Function-Stored Energy, Phospholipids form the cell membrane, Insulation, Bodies 2nd energy source
  • Examples-Butter, Cooking Oil, Lard, Milk Products like Ice Cream, Cheese and Sour Cream, Wax, Steroids.
Saturated Fats-No double bonds so they stack well forming solid lipids

Unsaturated Fats –Double bonds do not

stack well forming liquids

Saturated fats are bad for you because they solidify in the body forming plaque that

Clogs arteries=arteriosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis leads to high blood pressure, heart attacks (blockage to heart) and strokes (blockage to brain)
  • Trans Fats-worst kind
  • Manufacturers add

Hydrogens to vegetable oils making them able to stack, increasing their melting point and shelf life

3 proteins
3. Proteins
  • Elements-C, H, O, N, and sometimes S
  • Monomers-Amino Acids
  • Shapes= Amino Acids
  • Line= Peptide Bonds
  • Proteins are also called polypeptides
Use or Function-Building Blocks, Muscle, Component of Cell Membrane, ENZYMES, Body’s Last Energy Source
  • Examples-Eggs, Nuts, Peanut Butter, Meat, Beans
4 nucleic acids
4. Nucleic Acids
  • Elements-C, H, O, N, P
  • Monomers- Nucleotides
  • Nucleotide has three parts:
  • A Pentose (5 carbon sugar
  • A Phosphate Group
  • A Nitrogen Base
Function-Genetic Material that codes for the production of proteins
  • Examples-DNA-Deoxyribonucleic Acid

RNA-Ribonucleic Acid


enzymes are proteins
Enzymes are Proteins
  • Organic catalysts-speed up chemical reaction without being changed in the process
  • Enzymes lower the energy of activation or the amount of energy it takes to get a reaction started
  • Enzymes are very specific. They only fit one substrate
Denature-enzyme active site changes shape and can no longer bind with the substrate.
  • Enzyme will denature at the wrong pH which is enzyme specific.
2 temperature
2. Temperature
  • Molecules move faster when they are warm, slower when they are cool
  • Warm temperatures increase enzyme activity because they bump into the substrate more frequently
  • To high a temperature will cause the enzyme to denature (change shape) and the substrate can not bind with the

active site

3 concentration of enzyme or substrate
3. Concentration of Enzyme or Substrate
  • The more enzyme the greater the chance of the substrate bumping into it increasing the rate of the reaction until all of the substrate has been used.
  • The more substrate the greater the chance of the enzyme bumping into it increasing the rate of the reaction until all the enzymes have substrate in them and the reaction will level off