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The Civil War. Two Nations. The Case Against Slavery Slavery violated basic foundation of US Prejudice – unreasonable and unfavorable opinion of a group Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beacher Stowe Epitome of slavery and northerners feelings Southern Views on Slavery

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two nations
Two Nations
  • The Case Against Slavery
    • Slavery violated basic foundation of US
    • Prejudice – unreasonable and unfavorable opinion of a group
    • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beacher Stowe
    • Epitome of slavery and northerners feelings
  • Southern Views on Slavery
    • Spoke out against Northerners
    • Argued that leaders had slaves so cant be all bad
annexation of texas
Annexation of Texas
  • 1836 – Texans voted to annex(join) the US
  • South and Dems wanted to make it a slave state
  • North and Whigs didn’t want South to have more power
  • Thought annexing lead to war with Mexico
  • Santa Anna threatened in 1843
  • Annexation approved Feb 1845
war with mexico
War with Mexico
  • Dispute over Southern boarder
  • Pres. Polk wanted more than just Texas
  • Sent Ambassador Slidell to buy NM and CA for $30 mil
  • Mexico wouldn’t let him in
  • Polk sent 3000 troops under Zachery Taylor
  • Declared war May 13, 1846
treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • Feb 2, 1848
  • Four Concessions
    • Mexico loses TX to Rio Grande River
    • Mexico loses part of NM and CA
    • US pay 15 million
    • US pays damage claims of citizens (3 mil)
  • Five years later – Gadsden Purchase – NM & AZ (10mil)
  • Opened west for expansion
  • Left Mexicans bitter
effects of the missouri compromise
Effects of the Missouri Compromise
  • Many problems since signed in 1820
  • Only dealt with states not territories
  • New Mexican territory was south of 36 degrees
compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
  • Clay Proposes a compromise
    • 3 Key players
      • John Calhoun of SC
      • Daniel Webster of Mass.
      • Henry Clay of Kentucky

Clay proposes five laws to help with slavery

    • CA admitted as a free state
    • NM & UT can decide on slavery
    • Abolish sale of slaves, but not slavery in DC
    • TX would give up claim to NM for $10 mil
    • Fugitive Slave Act – All people required to help return any runaway slaves, slaves do not get jury trial
the kansas nebraska act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Sen. Stephen Douglas of Illinois
  • Wanted new states linked to Chicago by RR
  • Wanted to be president
  • 2 new non slave states would anger South
  • January 1854
  • Popular sovereignty – let people in territory decide slavery
  • Wanted to repeal Missouri Compromise
  • Passed – north hated it, Douglas = sellout
the creation of the republican party
The Creation of the Republican Party
  • Northerners were outraged by KNA
  • Created Republican Party to fight “Slave Power”

“Bleeding Kansas”

  • John Brown – God’s instrument to end slavery
  • May 24, 1856 killed 5 proslavery men and looted
  • Many more raids and counter raids
bleeding sumner
Bleeding Sumner
  • Violence spread to the capitol
  • Charles Sumner gave speech on crimes in Kansas
  • Insulted the Southerners esp. Andrew Butler of SC
  • Preston Brooks, his nephew was mad
  • Approached Sumner’s desk and beat him with cane
  • Sumner never recovered
  • Northerners were outraged
the dread scott decision
The Dread Scott Decision
  • March 1857
  • Dread Scott filed against his master
  • Once lived in free areas = that made him free
  • Ruled 7 to 2 against Scott
  • Slavery are property not people, so cant sue
  • Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional
  • Cant be free just being in a free place
lincoln douglas debates
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Stephen Douglas of Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Douglas –Little Giant, short, stout, white supremacy
  • Competing against little known Abraham Lincoln
  • 7 Debates
  • Lincoln – lawyer, tall, awkward, thin, quiet, plain clothes
  • Debated 2 ideas – majority rule and minority rights
  • Lincoln – slavery is bad, majority cant deny minority their rights
  • 1858 – Douglas won senate seat
john brown s raid
John Brown’s Raid
  • Oct 16, 1859 – attack on federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA
  • Wanted to give weapons to slaves
  • Dreamed of huge uprising
  • Col. Robert E. Lee defended the arsenal
  • Killed half of Brown’s men
  • Brown was hanged
  • Seen as a martyr
election of 1860
Election of 1860
  • Dem Party met to choose nominee
  • Slavery was main issue
  • Southern delegates left to choose own nominee
  • Whig and American Parties met in Baltimore
  • Became Constitutional Union Party
  • Republicans met in Chicago
  • Chose Abraham Lincoln
  • Election showed N/S line
  • Lincoln’s name not on most Southern ballots
  • Won 39% of vote and 180 Electoral votes
lower south secedes
Lower South Secedes
  • Mad that Lincoln won without any southern votes
  • Southerners wanted to leave the Union
  • Secessionists – thought who wanted South to secede
  • States choose to join so can choose to leave
  • South Carolina leaves December 20, 1860
  • 6 more joined
  • Confederate States of America
  • President Jefferson Davis
the war starts last minute compromises fail
The War Starts – Last Minute Compromises Fail
  • Many believe secession was illegal
  • Tried to compromise over slavery
  • Lincoln – secession was wrong but slavery couldn’t expand
  • Had to focus on laws of country
fort sumter
Fort Sumter
  • Charleston, SC April 1861
  • SC left union but troops still at Sumter
  • Confederate Forces wouldn’t allow supplies in
  • Tried to resupply for weeks
  • Gen Beauregard took by force
  • Beginning of Civil War
the upper south secedes
The Upper South Secedes
  • Lincoln had to respond to Sumter
  • Called for volunteers for the Army
  • Upper South (VA, NC, TN, AR) left
strengths of the north
Strengths of the North
  • 2x Railroad
  • 2x manufacturing
  • More money
  • Functions government
  • 2/3rds of pop lived there
  • Could have army and maintain economy
  • Fighting evil
strengths of the south
Strengths of the South
  • Most trained officers
  • Had to maintain defense to win
  • Moral preservation
union military strategies
Union Military Strategies
  • Navel blockade of South
  • Use troops and gun boats on Mississippi River
  • Gen Winfield Scott’s plan – Anaconda Plan
  • Seized Confed capital of Richmond
confederate war strategies
Confederate War Strategies
  • Prepare and wait
  • War of attrition – one side inflicts losses until other gives up
  • Stopped export of cotton
  • Thought Europe would miss it and aid them
  • Europe turned to India cotton
  • Blockade let nothing out
  • No exports = no money = no weapons
tactics and technology
Tactics and Technology
  • Old style war wasn't going to work
  • New bullets went straighter
  • Rifles sent bullets 5x further
  • Shells- devices that exploded in air or against something
  • Canister – shell filled with bullets
the battle of antietam
The Battle of Antietam
  • General Robert E. Lee wanted to invade North
  • Antietam, Maryland September 17
  • South outnumbered more than 2 to 1
  • In 3 hours losses – Union 12000, Confed 14000
politics in the south mobilizing for war
Politics in the SouthMobilizing for War
  • Lee calls for draft
  • 3 yrs of service for white males 18-35
  • Age range became 50 years old
  • Gov took control of economy
  • 1/10th of farmers product given to the Gov
  • Male slaves could be seized for military
the north s mobilization
The North’s Mobilization
  • Financial Measures
    • 1861 – 1st federal income tax passed
    • Tax on liquor, tobacco, medicine, newspaper
    • Most taxes repealed after war
    • Congress created National currency = greenbacks
    • Not backed by gold
  • Opposition to the War
    • Had draft, too
    • Riots against it
    • Copperheads – Dems who opposed war and republican power
emancipation and the war
Emancipation and The War
  • Lincoln and Slavery
    • Didn’t think it was his duty to end slavery
    • Saw it as a war time strategy
  • Emancipation Proclamation
    • January 1st, 1863
    • Freed the slaves
  • Reaction to Proclamation
    • Upset only freed slaves in Confed areas controlled by Union
    • South condemned it
    • Europe saw it as a chance to get away from the South
african americans join the war
African Americans Join the War
  • The Contraband Issue
    • Left behind slaves taken by Union Army
    • Contraband – captured items became property of taker
    • Union Army employed newly freed slaves
  • African American Soldiers
    • 1865 – 180,000 AAs in the Union Army
    • ½ were freed Southern Slaves
    • All black regiments formed
the hardships of war changes
The Hardships of War Changes
  • E.P and black troops changed slaves in the South
  • Escaped or hindered plantation work
  • Men off fighting , women were running things
the southern economy
The Southern Economy
  • Food shortages
  • Less people farming because off fighting
  • Looting and riots at bakeries
  • Industrial manufacturing did grow to make weapons
  • Mostly women workers
  • Inflation made profiteers rich
the northern economy
The Northern Economy
  • Industry got bigger, especially war related
  • Women workers paid less = more profit
prison camps
Prison Camps
  • Captured prisoners treated well over all
  • Andersonville – 26 acre field to hold 10,000 men
  • 35,000 housed, 100 a day died
medical care
Medical Care
  • 1/4th soldiers didn’t survive
  • Disease killed most
  • 3x more likely to die in camp than battle
  • Doctors didn’t clean instruments
  • Clara Barton
    • Collected supplies for the field
    • “Angel of the battlefield”
    • Founded the Red Cross
  • 4000 women became field nurses
  • Set up sanitation commission to clean camps
the battle of gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg
  • Union had low morale due to huge losses
  • South was short on supplies marching North
  • Wanted win on Union land
  • Needed shoes – supply in Gettysburg, PA
july 1 1863
July 1, 1863
  • Gunfire drew both sides units to town
  • Gen George Meade – new Union Gen arrived
  • Armies took up position on hills 4 miles long
  • Union line – Cemetery Ridge
  • Confed line – Seminary Ridge
july 2 1863
July 2, 1863
  • Confed attacked at 4pm instead of 6am
  • Fought into the night
  • When out of ammo, used bayonets
july 3 1863
July 3, 1863
  • Early morning scuffle
  • 1pm – 150 Confed cannons started firing
  • Infantry rushed center of Union line
  • Pickett's Charge – 15000 Confeds mile long, 3 deep
  • Union fired canister shells
  • 30 min later – no men left
  • Losses – Union 23000, Confed 28000
  • Lee lost 1/3rd of his army
  • Bloodiest battle of the Civil War
importance of 1863
Importance of 1863
  • July 4, 1863 – turning day of the war
  • Lee’s army was small and shrinking
  • Union kept taking Confed forts
  • Calls for peace began
the gettysburg address
The Gettysburg Address
  • Nov 19, 1863 – 15,000 came
  • Dedication of cemetery
  • Featured Edward Everett – famous Public Speaker
  • Gave 2 hour intro to Pres. Lincoln
  • Lincoln spoke for 2 minutes
  • War was terrible & Union needed to be restored
grant takes command 1864
Grant Takes Command - 1864
  • South’s strategies – hold on, especially to Richmond
  • Election in Nov, thought Lincoln would be replaced
  • Lincoln put Grant in control of Army
sherman in georgia
Sherman in Georgia
  • Same plan as Grant’s
  • Had 98000 troops
  • Plan to seize Atlanta
the capture of atlanta
The Capture of Atlanta
  • Opponent was Gen Joseph Johnston
  • Tried to hold Sherman back until November
  • By July, Union 3 miles from ATL
  • Pres. Davis replaced Johnston with Hood
  • Engaged Union but soon retreated to ATL
  • After month of Siege, Sherman won
sherman marches to the sea
Sherman Marches to the Sea
  • Plan to capture Savannah
  • Burned down Atlanta and left
  • Made 300 mile path of destruction
  • December 21, entered city
the election of 1864
The Election of 1864
  • Lincoln assumed he’d be beaten
  • Had to fight Fremont for Republican nomination
  • Dems chose Gen. George McClellan
  • Lincoln won 212 of 233 EV
a new birth of freedom
A New Birth of Freedom
  • Feb 1865 – 13th Amendment passed
  • Ended slavery forever
the end of the war sherman moves north
The End of the WarSherman Moves North
  • Left Savannah for SC
  • SC seen as heart of rebellion
  • Wanted to destroy resources and crush South’s will
  • Demolished everything in its way
  • Feb 17 – Columbia burned down
surrender at appomattox
Surrender at Appomattox
  • Desertions rose rapidly
  • Lee and 35000 went to meet Johnston’s troops
  • Lee disbanded and told to fight as guerrillas
  • Lee and Grant met in a private home
  • Talked briefly – weather, families
  • Surrender Terms
    • South Soldiers can go home
    • Won’t be tried as long as they obey laws
    • Freed soldiers in camps
lincoln is assassinated
Lincoln Is Assassinated
  • Southern troops surrender through Aprils
  • Southern conspirators lead by John Wilkes Booth
  • Plan – kidnap Lincoln in exchange for Confed prisoners
  • Unsuccessful so plan changed to murder
April 14, 1865 @ Ford’s Theater
  • Shot Lincoln and jumped to stage, broke leg, ran
Refused to surrender and was shot
  • Lincoln died the next day
  • Funeral Train – 14 days to Springfield, IL