Carboxylic Acids - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

carboxylic acids n.
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Carboxylic Acids

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  1. Carboxylic Acids

  2. Carboxyl Group Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl group on carbon 1. O  CH3 —C—OH = CH3—COOH carboxyl group

  3. Naming Carboxylic Acids Formula IUPAC Common alkan -oic acid prefix – ic acid HCOOH methanoic acid formic acid CH3COOH ethanoic acid acetic acid CH3CH2COOH propanoic acid propionic acid CH3CH2CH2COOH butanoic acid butyric acid

  4. Carboxylic Acids • Abundant and widely distributed in nature, many having a Greek or Latin word describing their origin • acetic acid (ethanoic acid) from acetum, meaning vinegar • many that were isolated from fats are called fatty acids • Examples on page 249

  5. Naming Rules • Identify longest chain • (IUPAC) Number carboxyl carbon as 1 • (Common) Assign , ,  to carbon atoms adjacent to carboxyl carbon CH3 | CH3 —CH—CH2 —COOH IUPAC 3-methylbutanoic acid Common -methylbutryic acid

  6. Learning Check Give IUPAC and common names: A. CH3COOH CH3 | B. CH3CHCOOH

  7. Solution A. CH3COOH ethanoic acid; acetic acid CH3 | B. CH3CHCOOH 2-methylpropanoic acid; -methylpropionic acid

  8. Properties • Carboxylic acids are weak acids CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO– + H3O+ • Neutralized by a base CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COO– Na+ + H2O

  9. Esters In an ester, the H in the carboxyl group is replaced with an alkyl group O  CH3 —C—O —CH3 = CH3—COO —CH3 ester group

  10. Esters • Although polar, they do not form hydrogen bonds (reason: there is no hydrogen bonded to a highly electronegative atom!) • thus, much lower b.p. than the hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acids they came from

  11. Esters in Plants Esters give flowers and fruits their pleasant fragances and flavors.

  12. Esters • Can be prepared from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol; usually a trace of mineral acid added as catalyst (because acids are dehydrating agents) • Note equation on bottom p. 345

  13. Esterification • Reaction of a carboxylic acid and alcohol • Acid catalyst O  H+ CH3 —C—OH + HO—CH2CH3 O  CH3 —C—O—CH2CH3 +H2O

  14. Esters • Naming? It has 2 words: • 1st: alkyl attached to single bonded oxygen from alcohol • 2nd: take the acid name, remove the -ic acid, add -ate • example on bottom p. 345

  15. Naming Esters • Name the alkyl from the alcohol –O- • Name the acid with the C=O with –ate acid alcohol O  methyl CH3 —C—O —CH3 Ethanoate methyl ethanoate (IUPAC) (acetate) methyl acetate (common)

  16. Some Esters and Their Names Flavor/Odor Raspberries HCOOCH2CH3 ethyl methanoate (IUPAC) ethyl formate (common) Pineapples CH3CH2CH2 COOCH2CH3 ethyl butanoate (IUPAC) ethyl butyrate (common)

  17. Learning Check Give the IUPAC and common names of the following compound, which is responsible for the flavor and odor of pears. O  CH3 —C—O —CH2CH2CH3

  18. Solution O  propyl CH3 —C—O —CH2CH2CH3 propyl ethanoate (IUPAC) propyl acetate (common)

  19. Learning Check Draw the structure of the following compounds: • 3-bromobutanoic acid • Ethyl propionoate

  20. Solution A. 3-bromobutanoic acid Br | CH3CHCH2COOH B. Ethyl propionoate O  CH3 CH2 COCH2CH3 CH3CH2COOCH2CH3

  21. Hydrolysis • Esters react with water and acid catalyst • Split into carboxylic acid and alcohol O  H+ H—C—O—CH2CH3 +H2O O  H—C—OH + HO—CH2CH3

  22. Saponification • Esters react with a bases • Produce the salt of the carboxylic acid and alcohol O  CH3C—OCH2CH3 + NaOH O  CH3C—O– Na++ HOCH2CH3 salt of carboxylic acid

  23. Learning Check Write the equation for the reaction of propionic acid and methyl alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst.

  24. Solution O  H+ CH3CH2COH + HOCH3 O  CH3CH2COCH3 + H2O

  25. Learning Check What are the organic products when methylacetate reacts with A. Water and an acid catalyst? B. KOH?

  26. Solution A. O  CH3COH + HOCH3 O  B. CH3CO– K+ + HOCH3