APA Citation and References Format
What is APA Style? • Manuscript and documentation format of The American Psychological Association (APA). • Specific and in-depth information about APA Style can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition).
Formatting • Font: 12pt. Times New Roman • One inch margins (top, bottom, left, right) • Double-spaced
Title Page • Header: • Title page: Running head: TITLE ALL CAPS 1 • Subsequent pages: TITLE ALL CAPS 2 • The Running head is a shortened version of full title • Center top portion of the cover page: • The Title of the Paper (Title Case) • Your Name • Your University • May have an acknowledgments
Abstract • Has its own page • One paragraph • Do not indent the first line of the paragraph (this is in the Abstract section only) • Approximately 150-250 word summary of entire paper • Reflects the purpose and content of the paper • Concise and nonevaluative • Keywords: key terms (like tags on web pages) centered, separated by commas
Headings • Five levels of headings • Probably will only use levels one-three
References • “References” centered on page • New page follows Conclusion section • Double-spaced • Hanging indent • Alphabetized
References: Books • Entire book (print) • Chapter in a book (print) • Online Book
References: Books • Entire book (print version): Lastname, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Location: Publisher. Grove, S. (1998). Anature conservation source-book for forestry professionals. London : Commonwealth Secretariat.
References: Books • Book chapter or entry in a reference book (print version): Lastname, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher. Use p. if the source is a page or less long.
References: Books Online • Book chapter or entry in a reference book (online version): Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxxxx
References: Periodicals • Journals • Newspapers • Magazines
References • The whole name of the journal/ magazine/ newspaper is title case. • Journal of Psychology • Journal of Marketing • Proper nouns are capitalized. • The Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) case: Perspectives of plaintiffs' experts. • Educational testing and Chicano students: Issues, consequences, and prospects for reform.
References NB: Only capitalize first letter of first word in title of an article and after the punctuation (colon). The rest of the words in the title are not capitalized. • The same rule applies for book titles. However, if referring to a book or an article within the text of your paper, be sure to capitalize all major words in a title.
References: Periodicals • Journal article (print version): Lastname, A. A., &Lastname, B.B., (Year of publication). Title of article from the journal. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page-page. • If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then change to regular type and give the page range without pp. • If the periodical does not use volume numbers, include pp. before the page numbers so the reader will understand that the numbers refer to pagination.
References: Periodicals • Journal article online with DOI (digital object identifier): Lastname, A. A. & Lastname, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page- page. doi:0000000/000000000000 Weick, K.E. (1979). The social psychology of organizing. Administrative Science Quarterly,2(4), 294. doi:10.2307/2392295
References: Periodicals • If there is no DOI assigned and the reference was retrieved online, give the URL of the journal home page. Lastname, A. A. & Lastname, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page-page. Retrieved from http://address of journal homepage (even if retrieved from a private database [pp.191-192]).
References: Periodicals • Newspapers (print): Lastname, A. A. & Lastname, B. B. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. A1, A4. If the article is taken from a single page, then use p.#.
References: Periodicals • Newspapers (online): Lastname, A. A. & Lastname, B. B. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.newspaperhomepage
References: Periodicals • Magazine (print): Lastname, A. A. & Lastname, B. B. (Year, month). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume(issue), pages- pages.
References: Online Periodicals • Magazines: Lastname, A. A. & Lastname, B. B. (Year, month). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume(issue). Retrieved from http://www.magazinehomepage
References: Web Documents • Webpage or Web document (non-periodical): Lastname, A. A. (Date of Publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address • Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis). • If no author, begin with the title, but be sure that there is truly no author (check the website’s home page; the author could be considered an organization) • If there is no date available for the document use (n.d.) for no date. • How credible is a source with no author and/ or no date?
References: Web Documents • Online reference work: Lastname, A. A. (Date of Publication). Title of document. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Online encyclopedia or reference work title. Retrieved from http://www.fullwebaddress
References: Images • Basic image with Author: • Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [type of work]. Retrieved month day, year, from: URL • Basic image with no Author: • Title of work [type of work]. (Year image was created). Retrieved month day, year, from: URL See APA Manual pages 209-210
In-Text Citations • APA uses an author-date system for citing sources in the text of the paper. • Example paraphrase: • Felines are obligate carnivores (Murdock, 2008). • Example paraphrase with signal phrase: • According to Murdock (2008), felines are obligate carnivores.
In-Text Citations • Remember: APA Style prefers paraphrasing rather than direct quoting. Direct quote when a string of three or more words from the original text is used or if meaning will be changed if paraphrased.
In-Text Citations • Example direct quote: • Some scientists argue that felines possess an inherent drive for protein-rich sources of food. For example, findings of a recent study suggest,“Felis catus is primarily an obligate carnivore which derives no health benefit from grain-based food sources” (Murdock, 2008, p. 67).
In-Text Citations • Two authors: (Thompson & Carter, 2008). • Three to five authors. First use, list all authors: (Travis, Gray, Earnst, Strong, & Williams, 2005). • Subsequent use: (Travis et al., 2005). • More than five authors: use the first author and et al. with the firstand subsequent usages • (Rockham et al., 2006).
The Writing Center • If you have any questions about APA style or any other concerns about your writing, please come by the Writing Center and one of our consultants will be happy to meet with you.