Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e Beverages John R. Walker Chapter 5
Wine • Wine is fermented juice of grapes • May be classified several ways • Light beverage wines (white, rose, and red) • Sparkling wines (best quality is champagne) • Fortified wines (Sherry, Port, and Madeira) • Brandy or wine alcohol is added • Aromatic wines (Vermouths and aperitifs) • Flavored with herbs, roots, flowers, and barks
Light Beverage Wines • White, red, or rose table wines are “still” (no carbonation), light beverage wines • In the United States, the premium wines are named after the grape variety, such as chardonnay and cabernet sauvignon
Sparkling Wines • Champagne, sparkling white wine, and sparkling rose wine • Champagne goes through a second fermentation in the bottle itself—this process is known as methode champenoise • Champagne only comes from the Champagne region of France • By law, Champagne only comes from the Champagne region of France
Fortified and Aromatic Wines • Fortified wines…Sherries, ports, Madeiras, and Marsalas have brandy or wine alcohol added for extra alcohol content. They are also sweeter than regular wines • Aromatic wines…are flavored with herbs, roots, flowers, or barks. They may be sweet or dry.
The History of Wine • The very first records about wine making date back about 7,000 years • The Greeks received the vine from the Egyptians, and later the Romans contributed to the popularization of wine in Europe • The wines of yesteryear were drunk when they were young and likely to be acidic and crude • The most important winemaking grape variety is the vitis vinifera.
Making Wine • Wine is made in 6 steps: Crushing, fermenting, racking, maturing, filtering (fining and clarifying), and bottling • Red wine gains its color during the fermentation process from the coloring pigments of the red grape skins
Matching Wine with Food • White wines: • Poultry, fish, and egg entrees • Red wines: • Any game or red meat • Sparkling wines: • Any course—from dry to sweet • The heavier the food, the heavier the wine • Champagne can be served throughout a meal • When a dish is cooked with wine it is best served with that wine • Sweet wines should be served with foods that are not too sweet
Major Wine-Growing Regions America California North and Central Coast Napa and Sonoma Great Central Valley Southern California New York Oregon and Washington Canada Australia South America South Africa • Europe • France • Bordeaux and Burgundy • Champagne and Cognac • Italy • Chianti • Germany • Riesling • Spain • Sherry • Portugal • Port
How to Read a Wine Label • Labeling varies from country to country • In the U.S. wines are typically labeled by their varietal grape and include the name of the region • In Europe, wines tend to be labeled regionally
Wine and Health • A glass of wine may be beneficial to your health • 60 Minutes focused on a phenomenon called the French Paradox • The French eat 30 percent more fat than Americans, yet they suffer fewer heart attacks than Americans. Ironically, the French drink more wine than people of any other nationality—about 75 liters per person a year. • Wine attacks platelets and wine’s flushing effect removes platelets from the artery wall.
Sustainable Wine Production • Organic is a term given to environmentally friendly methods that use no chemicals or pesticides. • Sustainability is defined as a holistic approach to growing and food production that respects the environment, the ecosystem, and even society.
Beer • Beer is a brewed and fermented beverage made from malted barley and other starchy cereals and flavored with hops • Beer is a generic term for a variety of mash-based, yeast-fermented brewed malted beverages that have an alcohol content mostly between 3.8 and 8 percent. • The term “beer” includes lager, ale, stout, and pilsner
The Brewing Process • The brewing process begins with water • Next, grain is added in the form of malt (barley that has been ground to a course grit) • The grain is germinated, producing an enzyme that converts starch into fermentable sugar—the yeast is the fermenting agent • The malt then goes through a hopper into a mash tub—which is a large stainless steel or copper container • Here the water and grains are mixed and heated
The Brewing Process • The liquid is now called wort and is filtered through a mash filter or lauter tub • This liquid then flows into a brewing kettle where hops are added, and the mixture is boiled for several hours • The hop wort is filtered through the hop separator, or hop jack, and is pumped through a wort cooler flowing into a fermenting vat where pure-culture yeast is added for fermentation • The brew is aged for a few days prior to being barreled for draught beer or pasteurized for bottled or canned beer
Organic and Craft Beers,Microbreweries, and Brewpubs • The USDA established the National Organic Program in 1997 • Brewers methods for reducing their ecological footprint are using various techniques such as: • Efficient brewhouses • Water treatment reducing water usage • Recycling all paper products • Many other ecological practices
Spirits • Liquid that has been fermented and distilled • Spirits are usually consumed before or after a meal • They are` served straight or neat, mixed with water, soda, juice, or cocktail mixes • Distilled spirits are made from a fermented liquid • Proof is the liquor’s alcohol content • In the U.S., proof is two times the percent of alcohol
Whiskies • Generic name for the spirit first distilled in Scotland and Ireland centuries ago • Made from a fermented mash of grain to which malt, in the form of barley, is added • Scotch Whisky: Smokey Kilns • Irish Whiskey: Not dried, milder • Bourbon Whisky: Corn mixed with rye • Canadian Whisky: From corn
White Spirits • Gin: • Made from juniper berries • Rum: • Light is from sugarcane • Dark is from molasses • Tequila: • Agave tequilana—a type of cactus • Vodka: • Barley, corn, wheat, rye, or potatoes • Lacks color, odor, and flavor
Other Spirits • Brandy: • Distilled from wine in a fashion similar to that of other spirits • Cognac: • Regarded as the best brandy in the world • Only made in the Cognac region of France—where the chalky soil and humid climate combine with special distillation techniques • Cocktails: • Drinks made by mixing two or more ingredients resulting in a blend that is pleasant to the palate—with no single ingredient overpowering the others
Cocktails • The first cocktails originated in England during the Victorian era, but it wasn’t until the 1920’s and 1930’s that cocktails became popular. • Cocktails are made by mixing two or more ingredients resulting in a blend that is pleasant to the palate • Wine, liquor, or juices • Cocktails can stimulate the appetite or provide the perfect conclusion to a fine meal
Non-alcoholic Beverages • Overall consumption of alcohol has decreased in recent years, with spirits declining the most • Nonalcoholic Beverages include: • Nonalcoholic beer and wine • Coffee • Tea • Carbonated soft drinks and energy drinks • Juices • Bottled water
Bars and Beverage Operations • Bar Setup: • Physical setup of the bar is critical to its overall effectiveness • Each station should have everything it needs to respond to most, if not all, requests • Inventory Control: • The better the control system, the less likely it is that there will be a loss • The beverage operation manager needs to establish what the expected results will be
Bars and Beverage Operations • Beverage Management Technology: • Technology for beverage management has improved with products from companies such as: • Scannabar and AZ Bar America POS • Personnel Procedures: • Procedures for screening and hiring bar personnel • Employees must be experienced in bartending and cocktail serving and also must be honest
Restaurant and Hotel Bars • In restaurants, the bar is often used as a holding area to allow guests to enjoy a cocktail or aperitif before dinner • The profit margin from beverages is higher than the food profit margin • Bars carry a range of each spirit, from well (least expensive) to call (most expensive) packages • Most bars operate on some form of par stock level, which means that for every spirit bottle in use, there is a minimum par stock level of one, two, or more bottles available as a backup
Nightclubs • A popular place to go to get away from the stresses of everyday life for a long time • A risky business • Requires a considerable time commitment • Owners should study demographics, market attitude, and social dynamics • A new concept is critical to success
Brewpubs and Microbreweries • Combination brewery and pub or restaurant that brews its own fresh beer on-site to meet the taste of local customers • Produces a wide variety of ales, lagers, and other beers—the quality of which depends largely on the quality of the raw materials and the skill of the brewer
Sports Bars • Geared toward a more diverse base of patrons • People’s tastes have changed, causing sports bars to now offer a more diverse menu • More family oriented: • Now offering games and family-friendly menus • Satellite television coverage of the top sporting events helps sports bars to draw crowds
Coffee Shops • Originally were created based on the model of Italian bars • Students as well as businesspeople find coffeehouses a place to relax, discuss, socialize, and study • Wireless cafes offering Internet accessibility are a recent trend in the coffeehouse sector
Liquor Liability and the Law • The bar is liable if: • They serve a minor. • They serve a person who is intoxicated. • Dram shop law: • Made owners and operators of drinking establishments liable for injuries caused by intoxicated customers • Some states have reverted back to the eighteenth-century common law which removes liability from vendors except in cases involving minors
Trends • The comeback of cocktails • Designer bottled water • Microbreweries • More wine consumption • Increase in coffeehouses and coffee intake • Increased awareness and action to avoid irresponsible alcoholic beverage consumption • An increase in beverages to attract more female participation • An increase in the number and variety of “energy drinks”