Settling the West Theme: After the Civil War, whites overcame the Plains Indians’ fierce resistance and settled the Great West, bringing to a close the long frontier phase of American history. Theme: The farmers who populated the West found themselves the victims of an economic revolution in agriculture. Trapped in a permanent debtor dependency, in the 1880s they finally turned to political action to protest their condition. Their efforts culminated in the Populist Party’s attempt to create an interracial farmer/labor coalition in the 1890s, but William Jennings Bryan’s defeat in the pivotal election of 1896 signaled the triumph of urbanism and the middle class.
I. Challenges with Native Americans • The Great West • Geography a. Plains, Mountains, Great Basin, and water features • Migration of cultures • Spanish-American • African-American • Overview NA-Govt policies • Pre-1830: Treaties with each tribe • 1830: Concentration • 1860: Relocation • Bureau of Indian Affairs • 1887: Assimilation • 1934: Semi-Autonomy • Indian Reorganization Act
I. Challenges with Native Americans (cont.) • Warfare with Native Americans, 1868-1890 • Highlights • Sand Creek, 1864 • Sioux War of 1876-1877 • Chief Joseph and Nez Pierce • Apache Wars • Battle of Wounded Knee, 1890 • Greater danger than whites: RR and disease • Indian Reform • H.H. Jacksons A Century of Dishonor, 1881 • Assimilation with Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
II. Impact of Railroad • Mining • Pike’s Peak, 1858 • Comestock Lode, 1859 • Women suffrage • Cattle • “Long Drive” • Challenge: weather and J. Glidden • Farming • Homestead Act, 1862 • 160/5 • Challenge: Lack of water a. Dry farming • Growth of Great West • New states and OK • Fading of Frontier • Superintendent of Census 1890 and F. J. Turner, 1893 a. Safety Valve? • Urbanization of the west • Farm becomes factory through “crop-lien” system General Mills, the parent company of Pillsbury, was founded during this time In 1860 in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
III. Political Highlights 1890’s • Rise of Populism, chapter 2 • Leaders • William Harvey Coin’s Fin. Sch. • Ignatius Donnelly • Mary Lease • Discontent • Panic of 1893 • Coxey’s Army • Pullman Strike • Election of 1896 • McKinley (Hanna) v. Bryan and 2 VP’s • Issues: Currency, campaign finance, radicalism Shot twice by Leon Czolgosz in Buffalo, NY in 1901
Map Questions(use the maps and charts in chapter 26 to answer the questions) • In the election of 1892, which three western states had no countries that backed the Populist party? • Which four southern states had the most Populist support in the election of 1892 (that is, at least three countries that went Populist)? • In the election of 1896, how many electoral votes did McKinley win from states west of the Mississippi River? • How many electoral votes did McKinley win in the southern states of the old Confederacy?
Map Answers • Montana, Washington, and California • Texas, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Georgia • Thirty-seven • none