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CHAPTERS 6-8(p. 229—297) Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration: Life at the Turn of the 20th Century.
Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration: Life at the Turn of the 20th Century. Timeline: 1850’s—1900’s Issues our nation faced: Industrialization (railroad, factories, steel, oil) Urbanization (cities, infrastructure) Immigration (new faces and new cultures) The status of women and minorities Political Events
Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration: Life at the Turn of the 20th Century. What potential problems and successes exist with each group of issues? What are some ways those problems and successes might be handled? How mightlife change for people involved in each group?
Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration: Life at the Turn of the 20th Century. Why might people be so resistant to change? examples: cell phones, computers (desktop to laptop), DTV, others? What advantages and disadvantages come with living in developed and industrialized areas?
Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration: Life at the Turn of the 20th Century. Herman Melville wrote: “Hark! Here comes that old dragon again— that gigantic gadfly…snort! puff! scream! Who or what might he be referring to?
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? I. Railroads A. railroads were private businesses B. by 1890, the U.S. had 180,000 miles of railroad. C. the U.S. government supported railroads with loans to purchase land.
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? I. Railroads D. other industries profited from railroad expansion 1. iron, coal, steel, glass, small business 2. entire towns began to grow around railroads a. “company towns” b. Pullman, Illinois (1880)
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? I. Railroads E. railroads changed the lives of Americans 1. travel was made faster and easier 2. railroads were “romanticized” *Pullman sleeper cars *Reading: HO#3 3. time zones were set a. November, 1883 b. C.F. Dowd
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? II. New problems came along A. workforce of immigrants B. strict conformity of the work force C. owner corruption and profit *Credit Mobilier Scandal D. price fixing E. land grants F. short haul vs. long haul
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? III. Government finally responds A. the Grange B. Munn v. Illinois (1877) C . The Interstate Commerce Act (1887) created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? IV. Oil A. kerosene lamps (1840’s) *Abraham Gesner B. Edwin L. Drake (1859) *oil boom followed from Pennsylvania to Texas
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? V. Steel A. coal deposits B. carbon from coal C. Bessemer Steel process 1. Henry Bessemer and William Kelly 2. @1850; widespread by 1880
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? V. Steel A. new inventions and innovations 1. barbed wire 2. farm equipment 3. Brooklyn Bridge 4. skyscrapers *Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? VI. Government vs. Industry A. ”big business” centered around industry was allowed to grow (basically unchecked) 1. laissez faire 2. monopolies B. Andrew Carnegie 1. 1899—Carnegie Steel Company 2. 1901—largest steel producer in America 3. Carnegie libraries and education
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? VI. Government vs. Industry vs. Labor A. J.P. Morgan *holding companies B. John D. Rockefeller *Standard Oil Company C. 1890--Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? VII. Labor A. working conditions were horrible 1. no sick leave or unemployment 2. seven day workweeks 3. 18-20 hour work days 4. low wages 5. poor housing (if any)
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? • Labor 6. children as young as five were working full time jobs. 7. by 1910, 20% of America’s workforce was between the ages of 5 and 15. 8. most work done by children was done at home and unsupervised.
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? VII. Labor 9. wages were not equal and were not enough to live on. 10. 1900—subsistence wages were $698 per year; 77% of Americans did not make subsistence wages 11. Andrew Carnegie reported an income of $23,000,000
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? VII. Labor 11. sweatshops (called “sweaters”) 12. tenement housing 13. food and family These issues caused two movements: the rise in labor unions The Progressive Reform Movement (social)
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? VIII. Labor Unions A. National Labor Union (1866) B. Colored National Labor Union C. craft (trade) unions vs. industrial unions 1. Samuel Gompers 2. the American Federation of Labor (1886) 3. Eugene V. Debs and “social unionism”
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? VIII. Labor Unions D. Industrial Workers of the World 1. the “Wobblies” 2. a union of both trade and industry E. unions as a threat
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? VIII. Labor Strikes A. The Great Strike of 1877 *railroad B. The Haymarket Riots *Chicago
Industrialization: Good, Bad, or Ugly? VIII. Labor A. The Homestead Strike 1. Carnegie Homestead Steel, Pennsylvania 2. Pinkerton Detective Agency 3. scabs 4. lasted June until November B. Pullman Railroad Strike
Urbanization and Immigration Things to consider: 1. What kind of services would you need in order to make life in a new place? 2. Where might you find work, or training for a job you are unskilled for? 3. Would you feel uncertain about accepting help from strangers? Why or why not?
Urbanization and Immigration • New people in a new land A. reasons to immigrate B. Europeans 1. between 1870 and 1920==20,000,000 2. mostly Irish, Italian, and Russian 3. several were Jewish
Urbanization and Immigration I. New people in a new land C. Asian 1. Chinese and Japanese 2. gold rush and railroads 3. Hawaiian planters recruited Japanese D. West Indies and Mexico 1. Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica 2. Mexico—political unrest E. map, p. 255
Urbanization and Immigration II. Getting here A. steamship B. Ellis Island 1. medical exam 2. documents C. Angel Island D. conditions at both were harsh and time consuming
Urbanization and Immigration • Settling in • “simple survival” • sought those with similar values, religion, and/or language. • growth of ethnic communities • hyphenated Americans E. “melting pot”
Urbanization and Immigration • Immigrant Resistance and prejudice A. nativism B. “right vs. wrong” immigrants C. religion vs. ethnicity D. WASP and The Second Ku Klux Klan E. labor issues F. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) G. Gentleman’s Agreement
Urbanization and Immigration • Urbanization A. growth of cities *map of New York, p. 263 B. The Americanization Movement 1. assimilation 2. social centers C. southern farmers and African-Americans
Urbanization and Immigration • Problems in the cities A. Housing 1. tenements 2. row houses B. transportation C. water D. sanitation E. crime F. fire
Urbanization and Immigration • Response to Urbanization A. The Social Gospel Movement B. settlement houses 1. led mostly by women 2. education, language, social services 3. Jane Addams—Hull House in Chicago 4. Janie Porter Barrett—Locust Street Social Settlement in Hampton, Virginia for African-Americans
“COSROWM” I. Women A. supported labor leaders and pro-labor political candidates. B. Mary Harris “Mother” Jones 1. supported UMW 2. child labor laws
“COSROWM” I. Women C. Pauline Newman (16) 1. ILGWU--1909 2. Triangle Shirt Factory--1911
“COSROWM” II. Minorities A. educational opportunities B. HBCU’s (Howard, Fisk, Atlanta) C. Booker T. Washington—Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. D. W.E.B. duBois and the Niagara Movement.
“COSROWM” II. Minorities E. voting restrictions 1. poll taxes 2. literacy tests 3. “grandfather” clauses
“COSROWM” II. Minorities F. Jim Crow laws G. forced segregation H. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) I. resurgence of Klan activity
A Changing Lifestyle • 1876: Thomas Alva Edison and the filament for the light bulb. • 1867: Christopher Sholes and the typewriter • 1876: Alexander Graham Bell and the telephone. • Construction: A. Louis Sullivan—skyscrapers B. Daniel Burnham—The Flatiron Building (1902)