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Lesson 3 – Ceramics and Glass. Chapter 4 . Ceramics. Are hard, crystalline solids made by heating clay and other mineral materials to high temperatures. Clay is made of water and very small mineral particles containing mostly silicone, aluminum, and oxygen.

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ceramics
Ceramics

Are hard, crystalline solids made by heating clay and other mineral materials to high temperatures.

Clay is made of water and very small mineral particles containing mostly silicone, aluminum, and oxygen.

When clay is heated above 1,000 degrees Celsius, much of the water present in the clay evaporates and the particles of clay stick together.

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Ceramics resist moisture, do not conduct electricity and can withstand temperatures that would cause metals to melt.

Ceramic pottery has been used for thousands of years to store food, protecting it from moisture and animals.

New uses for ceramics continue to be developed. Surgeons use bioceramic materials, for example, to replace human hips, knees and other body parts.

glass
Glass

Sand mixed with limestone can be melted into a thick, hot liquid that flows like molasses. If this liquid cools quickly, it forms a clear, solid materials with no crystal structure called glass.

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Early glassmakers added calcium and sodium to the melting sand. This mixture melts at a lower temperature than sand alone, so it is easier to work with.

More than 2,000 years ago, glassmakers in ancient Syria invented glassblowing.

Glass is clear, can be made into many shapes and colors, and can’t be penetrated by liquids.

communication through glass
Communication Through Glass

There’s a good chance that next time you make a phone call, your message will travel through glass. An optical fiber is a threadlike piece of glass (or plastic) that can be used for transmitting light.

A benefit of glass fibers is its stability. Since the glass does not corrode as metals do, the lines are easier to maintain.