Five Factor Model of Personality and its Facets:“the 5 dimensions of personality are thought of as broad domains, with each domain being a multi-faceted collection of specific cognitive, affective and behavioral tendencies that can be grouped in many different ways.” Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism
Big Five Factors and Facets and the Prediction of Behaviour (Paunonen & Ashton, 2001) • This study was based on the comparison between the big 5 factors and the facets/traits that constitute these factors in their ability to predict behaviour. • 141 subjects were involved in the study which was spread over two sessions separated by one week. • Personality measured using the extended NEO-PI-R and a set of items from the PRF and JPI measures of personality. • In assessing behaviour a Behaviour Report Form (self-rated and peer-rated), Experimenter Ratings and University Records were used. The Behaviour Criteria was made up of 40 items. • Therefore, the big 5 factors and the facets of these factors were being compared in terms of their criterion predictability.
“aggregating personality traits into their underlying personality factors could result in decreased predictive accuracy due to the loss of trait-specific but criterion-valid variance” • The study found that the broad factors and the narrow facets predicted substantial numbers of criterion. However, the facets predicted this behavior noticeably better. The study supports a more detailed approach to personality assessment that goes beyond the measurement of the big five factors alone.
Relation Between Alexithymia and the Five Factor Model of Personality • Luminet, Bagby, Wagner, Taylor & Parker. (1999) J PersAssess. 1999 Dec;73(3):345-58. pubmed • Alexithymia: • Construct encompassing a cluster of cognitive-affective characteristics: a difficulty in identifying feelings, in expressing feelings, an impoverished imaginal life and externally oriented style of thinking. this construct is considered to be based on maladaptive modes of affect regulation. • Affect is often emphasised within personality research and therefore it is important to understand how alexithymia might relate to personality. • This study examined the relationship between Alexithymia and both the domain level and facet levels of the Five Factor Model. • 101 subjects were included in the study and the TAS (Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the NEO-PI-R were administered.
The NEO-PI-R allowed for a more detailed analysis of the relations between alexithymia and the lower order traits that comprise the first three dimensions of FFM (N, O and E). • “Results indicate that alexithymia reflects an individual difference in emotional experience and behaviour, not corresponding to any single dimension or lower order trait within the FFM, but is captured by a complex admixture of narrow personality traits”
The Five Factor Model & Impulsivity; using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity • Impulsivity; a psychological construct evident in every major system of personality • Prominent role in psychopathology; often in diagnostic criteria for personality disorders, such as mania or antisocial personality disorder • Whiteside & Lynam’s (2000) study examined impulsivity as a concept, and how it mapped on to the 4 aspects of impulsivity in FFM
Four-factor solution that corresponded to 4 traits of impulsivity in NEO-PI-R • Urgency; Impulsiveness facet (N) • Premeditation; Deliberation facet (C) • Perseverance; Self-discipline facet (C) • Sensation Seeking; Excitement-seeking (E) • These four facets are considered discrete psychological processes that lead to impulse-like behaviour
Between Facets and Domains: 10 Aspects of the Big Five • DeYoung, C. G., Quilty, L. C., & Peterson, J. B. (2007) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.93. 880–896 • Research has at times identified 2 sub-factors of each of the Big 5 • Indicating a level between facets and domains • Study set out to investigate Jang et al’s claim that two genetic factors were responsible for this • Study 1; investigated number of factors present within facets – supported previous research as two factors were evident in each domain
Openness; Openness & Intellect • Extraversion; Assertiveness & Enthusiasm • Conscientiousness; Industriousness & Orderliness • Agreeableness; Compassion & Politeness • Neuroticism; Volatility & Withdrawal
How well do these phenotypic factors correspond to the genetic factors identified by Jang? • Correlated genetic factor scores with aspect factor scores • Each genetic factor was more strongly correlated with one phenotypic factor than the other • So each Big 5 domain may be divisible into two correlated “aspects”, perhaps reflecting an underlying genetic structure