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Development of Madhyamaka Philosophy. Arya Nagarjuna and Madhyamaka philosophy. Madhyamaka Philosophy. The Madhyamaka Philosophy was created by Arya Nagarjuna Pada and he lived between 2 nd and 3 rd Century A.D. It was mentioned earlier that Arya Nagarjuna has written a Commentary to

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Development of madhyamaka philosophy

Development of Madhyamaka Philosophy

Arya Nagarjuna and Madhyamaka philosophy

Madhyamaka philosophy
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • The Madhyamaka Philosophy was created by Arya Nagarjuna Pada and he lived between 2nd and 3rd Century A.D.

  • It was mentioned earlier that Arya Nagarjuna has written a Commentary to

    Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita in the name of Mahaprajnaparamita Sastra.

  • Probably Nagarjuna Pada originated the Sunyata

    Theory in his mind when he was writing Maha-

    Prajnaparamita Sastra.

Madhyamaka philosophy1
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • The Prajnaparamita literature carries the analysis of Sunyata and its main theme is the theory of Sunyata.

  • In order to put forward the theory of Sunyata Nagarjuna pada wrote the Mula

    Madhyamaka Karika.

  • In the Mulamadhyamaka Karika Nagarjuna pada has written one Stanza in 24th chap.

Madhyamaka philosopy
Madhyamaka Philosopy

  • Clarifying the meaning of Sunyata.

  • “Yah pratityasamutpadah

    Sunyatam tam pracakmahe

    Sa prajnapti mupadaya

    Pratiptsaiva madhyama – 24:18

    (If anything is dependently originated we say that is Sunya, that is dependent upon convention. That itself is middle path)

Madhyamaka philosophy2
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • According to the above mentioned stanza

    Sunyata means theory of Pratityasamutpada.

    (Dependently origination). Then at the very

    beginning in the pranama gatha (Paying Homage ) of Mulamadhyamaka karika

    mentions in the 2nd stanza.

Madhyamaka philosopy1
Madhyamaka Philosopy

  • Yah pratitya samutpadam

    Prapancopasamam sivam

    Desayamasa sambuddhah

    Tam vande vadatam varam

    (I salute him, the fully enlightened, the best

    of Speakers, who preached the dependent

    arising, the appeasement of obsessions and the auspicious).

Madhyamaka philosophy3
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • In this manner Arya Nagarjuna explained the Sunyata theory in the way of Pratityasamutpada.

  • Arya Nagarjunapada tried to explain Sunya and tried to analyze everything in the manner of Pratityasamutpada, because he realizes everything is Sunya and nothing exist which is not dependently originated.

Madhyamaka philosophy4
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Apratitya-samutpanno

    Dharmah kascid na vidyate

    Yasmat tasmat asunyo hi

    Dharmah kascin na vidyate -24:19

    (There is no a thing that is not dependently

    Arisen. For that reason, a thing that is non-empty is also not evident.)

Madhyamaka philosophy5
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Therefore Arya Nagarjuna tried to explain

    not the pratityasamutpada but nature of dependently origination of everything.

  • The first chapter of Mulamadhyamaka karika is called Pratyayapariksa (Investigation of Pratyaya) and tried to analyze Cause (hetu)

    and Effect (Phala).

Madhyamaka philosophy6
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • In this chapter he negated the notion that

    things are not produced by hetu-Pratyaya.

  • The first Stanza is:

    Na svato na pi parato

    Na dvabhyam na pi ahetutah

    Uppanna jatu vidyante

    Bhavah kvacana kecana

Madhyamaka philosophy7
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • (There is nothing exist which is produced by

    himself, by otherselves, by both, or without a cause).

    The Main teachings of Madhyamaka Philosophy

    T.R.V.Murti shows the four instances of the

    Development of Madhyamaka Philosophy.

Madhyamaka philosophy8
Madhyamaka Philosophy

Those are: 1.Writing the primary works of the Madhyamaka philosophy by Arya Nagarjuna and his close students. 2. Writing the commentaries to the Madhyamaka Karika by

Buddhapalita and Bavaviveka. 3.writing

Prasannapada tika by Candrakirthi Pada to

approve the Buddhapalita’s view. 4. starting the system of interpretation with the mixer

Madhyamaka philosophy9
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Of Madhyamaka and Yogacara by Shantarakkhita and Kamalasila.

  • 1. Writing the primary works of Madhyamaka Philosophy by Arya Nagarjuna and his close students.

  • Arya Nagarjuna was living between 2 – 3

    century, written a large number of Books.

    Among those books Karika (Madhyamaka Karika) becomes primary work and the

Madhyamaka philosophy10
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Madhyamaka system was developed with

    commentaries written for the Karika. In the

    history of Madhyamaka philosophy Arydeva pada was considered as one of the members of orijinators of this system similar to Arya Nagarjuna. Aryadeva has written

    Catussataka explaining Madhyamaka system

    Candrakirthi has written a commentary to it. According to the commentary to the

Madhyamaka philosophy11
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Catussataka Aryadevapada was a prince of a Sinhala Country and became a monk under the teachership of Arya Nagarjuna.

    A.K.Wader says Aryadevapada takes the Bodhisattva doctrine as primary teachings.

  • Catussataka contains 400 slokas, it devids

    into the 16 chapters and each chapter contains 25 slokas. In the first part of this

Madhyamaka philosphy
Madhyamaka Philosphy

  • He discarded opposite views. Unlike Arya Nagarjuna pada, he was interested to refute

    the Sankhya and Vaisesika views. In the book called Satasatra he discarded the views of Sankhya, Vaisesika, Jaina, Lokayata and Theistic views mentioning their names. According to Tibetan system

    Catussataka, Aksarasataka, Hastavala

Madhyamaka philosophy12
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Prakarana and Jnanasara Samuccaya were his works. Some other works such as Satasatra Vaipulya, Cittavisuddhi Prakarana

    also ascribed to him.

  • Naga(Nagabodhi – Tathagatabhadra) was

    the other student of Nagarjuna Pada. He has written a Commentary to Pancavimsati

    Sahasrika Maha Prajna Paramita.

Madhyamaka philosophy13
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Wader says the relationship of Madhyamaka

    philosophy and the Prajnaparamita Sutras

    are clearly shown. Dvadasa Sastra, an

    explanation of Madhyamaka Philosophy

    (Only exists in Chainese language) also considered as one of his works. According to these information the works of Nagarjuna pada and is close two students’ works can

Madhyamaka philosophy14
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Be considered as the first stage of this Madhyamaka Philosophy.

  • 2 Second Stage of Madhyamaka Philosophy. Writing commentaries to the Madhyamaka philosophy by Buddha Palita and Bhavaviveka

  • The commentary to Madhyamaka Karika

    which was written by Buddhapalita is not

Madhyamaka karika
Madhyamaka Karika

  • Existing now in original form but existing in

    Tibetan language.

    Buddhapalita (470-550) has written commentaries to the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva. Buddhapalita was a great master and he was the exponent of Prasangika system of Mahayana Buddhism.

    It was said that he was born in Hamsakrida,

Madhyamaka philosophy15
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • South India from an early age took a deep interest in the teachings of the Buddha. He

    received novice and full ordination and entered Nalanda monastery, where he studied under a Acarya Sangharaksita, himself a disciple of Nagamitra.Buddhapalita

    quickly Mastered the teachings of Arya Nagarjuna, later while residing at Dantapura

Madhyamaka philosophy16
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Monastery in South India he composed

    many commentaries to the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva.

    In the 6th Century CE Buddhapalita composed his famous commentary to Nagarjuna’s Fundamental Wisdom (Mulasastra)called Buddhapalita Vrtti, a work of great clarity and insight.

Madhyamaka philosophy17
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • As a true Prasangika treatise it extensively

    employed consequences to elaborate Madhyamaka view. His younger contemporary Bhavaviveka also composed a comentary to Nagarjuna’s work called Lamp

    of wisdom (Prajnapradipa) in which he criticized Buddhapalita’s position.

Madhyamaka philosophy18
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • What is Prasangika System

  • Madhyamakas disapprove opponents views

    by drawing out the implications (falacious

    nature) of their views, but does not show Madhyamaka’s own thesis. This is the meaning of Prasangavada (Acaryo bhuyasya

    prasangapatti mukhenaiva parapaksam

    nirakarotisma. Madhyamaka vrtti

Madhyamaka philosophy19
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • (Prasannapada by candrakirthi) MKV p.24).

    This particular theory of Prasangavada of Buddhapalita Thera in Madhyamaka Karika

    is pointed out by Candrakirti Pada in his Madhyamaka Karika Vrtti. Therefore we have to accept that Buddhapalita Thera was the originator of Prasangika system.

Madhyamaka philosophy20
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • What is this Svatantrika system

  • Bhavaviveka Thera was the originator of

    Svatantrika tradition. Svatantrika system

    is to criticize other’s views to prove Madhyamaka stand, but must put forward his own arguments (Swatantra anumana).

    That means while refuting opponents views he must bring forward his own thesis.

Madhyamaka philosophy21
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • By this way Bhavaviveka Thera criticized the

    Buddhapalita Thera’s view of Prasangavada.

    Bhavaviveka Thera was a contemporary to Buddhapalita Thera and his commentary to

    Madhyamaka karika was Prajnapradipa.

    Bhavaviveka (Bhavya) (500-578) was one of the 1st Buddhist Logician to employ the

    ‘formal syllogism’ of Indian logic in expounding

Madhyamika philosophy
Madhyamika Philosophy

  • The Madhyamaka which he employed to considerable effect in his commentary to

    Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamaka Karika

    entitled the Prajnapradipa.

    According to one source, Bhavaviveka was born to the East of Magadha in India of

    Ksatriya family. He was ordained by Nagarjuna. Another source claims that

Madhyamaka philosophy22
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • He was born of a Royal family of ‘Malayara’

    in South India. After becoming a monk he travelled to Madhya-desa(Middle-India) and

    received the teachings on the Mahayana

    sutras and Nagarjuna texts from Acarya

    Sanharakhita. After that he returned to Southern India and became a head of 50

    temples and taught extensively.

Madhyamaka philosophy23
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Bhavaviveka trys to prove his theory by

    Syllogistic argument. During that time the teachers of Vijnanavada Dingnaga and Dharmakirti developed Buddhist logic by criticizing five members of syllogism

    (Tarkika sanvakya) (panca avayava vakya)

    Brahmanic logic – Five members. Buddhists

    maintained only three members only.

Madhyamaka philosophy24
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Five memers syllogism (Anumana vakya) as follows.

    Brahmanik Syllogism

    1. Pratijna = Thesis = That mountain has fire

    2. Hetu = Reason = There is a smoke

    3. Drsthanta = Example = Similar to Kitchen

    4. Upanaya = Application = It has smoke

    5. Nigamana = conclusion = It has fire

Madhyamaka philosophy25
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Buddhists have changed this five members into three members.

    1.Pratijna – Thesis – That mountain has fire.

    2.Hetu = Reason = Mountain has smoke.

    3. Dristhanta = Example = Similar to kitchen

    Bhavaviveka Thera was an expert on this Buddhist logic. Therefore he was of the

    view that it is not only by rejecting others

Madhyamaka philosopy2
Madhyamaka Philosopy

  • Views can prove Madhyamaka stand but he must put forward his own logics to prove.

    These arguments are valied to the whole of

    Madhyamaka Karika but this particular Prasangika and Svatantrika stands were pointed out at the very beginning of the

    interpretations of the 1st stanza of Madhyamaka Karika

Madhyamaka philosophy26
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Na svato na pi parato

    Na dvabhyam napyahetutah

    Uppanna jatu vidyante

    BhavaH Kvacana Keca

    (Things are not bone itself, not by others,

    not by both itself, not without a cause).

Madhyamaka philosophy27
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • This interpretation is Prasangika. But for the Bhavaviveka this is not enough, but put forward his own example.

  • 3.The third instances of the development of Madhyamaka philosophy is the writng comentary to the Madhyamaka Karika by candakirti Thera.

Madhyamaka philosophy28
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Prasannapada is the Candrakirti Theras commentary. This is the only commentary remaining among other 4 commentaries in Sanskrit language. By this commentary candrakirti thera presents the prasangika theory of Buddhapalita. Candrakirti Thera

    presents long comment on the 1st sloka of

    the Madhyamaka karika. By that he

Madhyamaka philosophy29
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • He criticizes the Swatantrika theory of

    Bhavaviveka. Candrakirti says the Prasangika system is the proper system to realize the Madhyamaka methodology. This has become a major system of interpritation

    in Tibet and Mongolia. Shantideva pada who

    wrote Bodhicaryavatara and Siksasamuccaya

    was also a follower of Prasangika system approved

Madhyamaka philosophy30
Madhyamaka philosophy

  • Candrakirti Thera. T.R.V.Murti says a true

    Madhyamaka does not have to interpret anything by a proposition or to put forward examples to prove anything. His only work

    is to refute the opponent’s view by his own

    facts. Candrakirti thera tells us that Buddhapalita thera put forward this Prasangika interpretation.

Madhyamaka philosophy31
Madhyamaka philosophy

  • 4 The Last phase of the development of the Madhyamaka Philosophy lies on Santaraksita and Kamalasila. The philosophy of these teachers have been accepted as a mixture of Madhyamaka and yogacara systems. These two teachers were the pioneers of introduction Buddhism to Tibet.Therefore Tibetan teachers carefully studied the works of these two teachers.

Madhyamaka philosophy32
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Therefore these two were named by those Tibetan teachers as Yogacara- Madhyamaka

    teachers. Tatvasangraha was the first book of Santaraksita. This is an extensive analysis of Madhyamaka philosophy and Buddhist thought. This book is similar to Mula Madhyamaka karika of Nagarjuna. As same as the Madhyamaka Karika in Tatvasamgraha also chapters have been

Madhyamaka philosophy33
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Named as Pariksa. But in this book Santaraksita held an Idealistic stand on empirical reality and accepted momentary

    theory (Ksanavada) and self-characteristic of

    Sautrantika. Therefore Tibetan teachers

    identification these two teachers as Sautrantika-Vijanavadi-Madhyamaka is

    justifiable. Kamalasila thera has written

Madhyamaka philosophy34
Madhyamaka Philosophy

  • Madhyamakaloka and Bhavanakrama. As to the methodology followed to write those books, these books are similar to the books of Santaraksita. The other teachers who followed this methodology were Jnanagarbha, Sri Gupta, Vimuktisena, and Harbhadra.