Introduction of philosophy History of Philosophy
Meaning of Philosophy • Love and pursuit of wisdom • Investigation of the nature, causes, principles, knowledge based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods • Systematic method of evaluating life or getting higher knowledge of the self • The word "philosophy" comes from the Greek word (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom" • The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras
Types of philosophy • Eastern philosophy & Western philosophy
Area of enquiry • Metaphysics: Metaphysics is the study of the most general features of reality, such as existence, time, mind, body, properties, etc. • Epistemology: Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between truth, belief, justification • Logic:Logic is the study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. :mathematical logic and philosophical logic • Ethics and political: concerned primarily with the question of the best way to live • Aesthetics: Aesthetics deals with beauty and art
Three periods of philosophy • Ancient philosophy • Medieval philosophy • Modern philosophy
Ancient : Indian philosophy The term Indian philosophy: including Hindu, Buddhist and Jain philosophy, main theme Dharma and Karma; They have been formalized and promulgated chiefly between 3000 BC to a few centuries AD. India's philosophical tradition dates back to the composition of the Upanishads in the later Vedic period (c. 1000-500 BCE). The Veda, or collection of primitive religious literature of the Hindus, consists of books of sacred hymns, the Rig-Veda, the Sâma-Veda, the Yagur-Veda, and the Atharva- Veda. consist of songs of praise and prayer directed to Agni (fire),Soma, , IndraVaruna
Ancient : Indian philosophy contd.. • Six great historical systems of Indian philosophy, The Vedânta, or Uttara-Mîmâmsâ, is first in importance among the systematic expositions of the philosophical teachings of the Upanishads. The Pûrva-Mîmâsâ is a system of practical philosophy and is contained in twelve books of Sûtras. Here the central idea is that of duty (Dharma), which includes sacrificial observances and rests ultimately on the superhuman authority of the Veda. The Sâmkhya philosophy , or Kapila-Sûtras.. This principle is of itself lifeless and unconscious, and rises into life and consciousness only when contemplated by the soul (purusha). The Yoga philosophy is contained in the Sûtras ascribed to Patañgali, who is supposed to have lived during the second century B.C. Nyâya philosophy is contained in the Nyâya-Sûtras. The founder of the system was Gotama, or Gautama. According to this system, the supreme resignation, or freedom, in which man's highest happiness consists, is to be attained by a knowledge. Nyâya philosophy came to be regarded as a system of logic. Vaisheshika philosophy, founded by Kanâda, is contained in the Vaisheshika-Sûtras.To these six great historical systems, which were orthodox in so far as they recognized the supreme authority of the Veda, were opposed the heterodox systems of the heretics (Nâstikas) who, like the Buddhists, the Jainas, and the Materialists, rejected the divine authority of the sacred writings. Besides these, other schools Pashupata, Saiva, Rasevara and Panni.
Ancient : Egypt and Babylonphilosophy • The origins of Babylonian philosophy can be traced back to Mesopotamia which embodied certain philosophies of life, particularly ethics, in the forms of dialectic, dialogues, epic poetry, folklore, hymns, lyrics, prose and proverbs. The reasoning and rationality of the Babylonians developed beyond empirical observation. The philosophy is that every object, every force in nature, was believed to possess a spirit (Zi) who could be controlled by the magical sorcerer-priest. Gradually certain of these spirits had been elevated to the dignity of gods, as, for instance, Anu (the sky), Mul-ge, or Enum (the earth), and Hea (the deep). • Egypt, from which this hierarchical system of gods was evolved? Monotheism, Polytheism, Pantheism, Henotheism, Totemism, Sun-Worship, Nature-Worship, -- the great gods, chief whom were Ra (the sun), Nut (heaven), and Set, or Typhon (the earth), With regard to the speculative elements of thought contained in the mythological conceptions of the Egyptians, mention must be made of the doctrine that everything living, whether it was a god, a man, or an animal, possessed a Ka, or "shadow," which was in each case more real and permanent than the object itself.
Ancient: Chinese Philosophy • The majority of Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn and Wrring States era, during a period known as the “Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments. It was during this era that the major philosophies of China, Confucianism, Mohism, Legalism and Taoism arose, along with philosophies that later fell into obscurity, like Agriculturalism, Naturalism and logicians. Of the many philosophical schools of China, only Confucianism and Taoism existed after the Qin dynasty. • Confucianism is humanistic philosophy that believes that human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavour especially including self-cultivation and self-creation. It focus on ethical values especially domestic and political values. Taoism focuses on establishing harmony with the Tao, which means "way", "path" or "principle". introduced into China the first system of speculative thought, the philosophy of Tao (Reason, Way),
Ancient: Greek and Roman philosophy • Ancient Greece-Roman philosophy is a period of Western philosophy, starting in the 6th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is usually divided into three periods: the Pre- Socratic period, the period of Plato and Aristole, and the post-Aristotelian period • Socrates developed the method of dialogue, by which anybody can get clear ideas like beauty, god, religion etc. Socrates' most important student was Plato, who founded the Academy of Athens and wrote a number of dialogues, which applied the Socratic method of inquiry to examine philosophical problems. Plato specifically, is credited as the founder of Western philosophy. There is considerable discussion about why Athenian culture encouraged philosophy, but a popular theory] says that it occurred because Athens had a direct democracy. It is known from Plato's writings that many sophists maintained schools of debate, were respected members of society, and were well paid by their students. • Plato's most outstanding student was Aristole, perhaps the first truly systematic philosopher. Aristotlian logic was the first type of logic to attempt to categorize every valid syllogism.
Medieval period: India • The period between 5th and 9th century CE was the most brilliant epoch in the development of Indian philosophy as Hindu and Buddhist philosophies flourished side by side. Of these various schools of thought the non-dualistic Advaita Vedanta emerged as the most influential and most dominant school of philosophy. This means that there is only one supreme reality, a reality called Brahman, the supreme being. Brahman is infinite and omnipresent (present absolutely everywhere), therefore nothing can be added to it and furthermore, there cannot be a place where he is not. Therefore, Brahman being non-dual in nature, there is no place for the world or man or any creature outside Brahman. It transcends all pairs of opposites and descriptions.The practical application of advaitavedanta is jnana yoga, the yoga of knowledge or wisdom. It is the direct path to experiencing the truth of advaita, meaning to realize your true Self, the atman.The major philosophers of this school were Gaudapada, AdiShankara and Viyaranya.
Medieval period: China and East Asia • During the Tang Dynasty, Buddhism form Nepal also became a prominent philosophical and religious discipline. Neo-Confucianism is a philosophical movement that advocated a more rationalist and secular form Confucianism by rejecting superstitious and mystical elements had influenced Confucianism during and after the Han Dynasty. . Elsewhere in East Asia, Japanese philosophy began to develop as indigenous Shinto beliefs fused with Buddhism and Confucianism . Similar to Japan, in Korean philosophy the emotional content of Shamanism was integrated into the Neo-Confucianism imported from China.
Medieval period: Western Europe and Middle East • Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Western Europe and the Middle East during the middle ages, roughly extending from the Christianization of the Rome Empire until the Renaissance. Medieval philosophy is defined partly by the rediscovery and further development of classical Greek , and partly by the need to address theological problems and to integrate the then widespread sacred doctrines of Abrahamic religion (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity). The history of western medieval philosophy is generally divided into two periods, early medieval philosophy, which started with St. Augustine in the mid 4th century and lasted until the recovery in the 13th century West of a great bulk of Aristotle's works and their subsequent translation into Latin from the Arabic and Greek, and high medieval philosophy, which came about as a result of the recovery of Aristotle. This period, which lasted a mere century and a half compared to the nine centuries of the early period, came to a close around the time of William of Ockham in the middle of the 14th century. Western medieval philosophy was primarily concerned with implementing the Christian faith with philosophical reason, that is, "baptizing" reason.
Renaissance philosophy • The Renaissance ("rebirth") was a period of transition between the Middle Ages and modern thought, in which the recovery of classical texts helped shift philosophical interests away from technical studies in logic, metaphysics, and theology towards eclectic inquiries into morality, philology, and mysticism. Renaissance, spread into Europe from Italy., also by the means of architecture, arts and literature, inaugurated new philosophical problems, and permitted a new era of thought, independent from the Roman Church. These new movements in philosophy developed contemporaneously with larger religious and political transformations in Europe Meanwhile, the gradual centralization of political power in nation-states was echoed by the emergence of secular political philosophies