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  1. Student Success Conference October 3, 2012 A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  2. Embracing and Leading Change Preparing Students for Success in Transfer-level Composition: Faculty Beliefs and Student Experiences A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  3. Data •Institutional Data • Program review and assessment • Student Surveys • Classroom based research • Student Interviews • Outside classroom research •  Grades A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  4. Overview •Ohlone Collegeand English program •Data and hypothesis  Reading Requirement • Data collection and analysis • Conclusions • Further Research A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  5. Ohlone College Community • SF Bay area (Fremont)-Silicon Valley •  ethnic groups in community: Asian (35.3%) White (29.2%) Hispanics (19.4%) • residents age 25 or over: 26.5% BA; 16.7% grad./prof. degrees • employed residents: 49.8% management or professionals A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  6. Ohlone Students by Ethnicity A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  7. Ohlone College Transfer Rates A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  8. Ohlone College Transfer Students • Ohlone transfer students do as well as or better than students who begin at a UC or CSU • Ohlone CSU transfer students earn a GPA that is higher than other transfer students A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  9. English Sequence at Ohlone A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  10. How are students doing in English? A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  11. How are students doing in English? A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  12. English Faculty: Hypothesis “Possible explanations for poor or falling success rates, especially for 101A, may be that students are not retaining information and skills from course to course. From 151B to 101A there particularly seems to be a gap in retention of information and skills, and students seem to be arriving in 101A unprepared for college-level reading and writing” – Program Review, 2006 A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  13. English Faculty: Solution • Reading Requirement, Fall 2007 • Placement test: clear reading or place into developmental reading • 163 prerequisite to English 101A • Rationale • Common sense—students need college-level reading skills for a college transfer-level class • Consistency—developmental writing required; developmental reading required A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  14. Reading Requirement: Implementation Placement Testing Data: Summer/Fall 2009 Total test records: 2530 A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  15. Reading Requirement: Implementation Placement Testing Data: Summer/Fall 2009 Total test records: 2741 A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  16. Reading Requirement: Results Dev. Reading Enrollment Increased A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  17. Reading Requirement: Results Dev. Reading Enrollment Increased A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  18. Reading Requirement: Results 101A Success Rates Improved A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  19. Reading Requirement: Results 101A Success Rates Improved A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  20. Reading Requirement: Results 101A Retention Rates Improved A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  21. Reading Requirement: Results 101A Retention Rates Improved A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  22. Reading Requirement: Results Developmental Writing Success Improved A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  23. Reading Requirement: Results Developmental Writing Success Improved A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  24. Reading Requirement: Results Concurrent Enrollment Improves Success A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  25. Reading Requirement: Results Concurrent Enrollment Improves Success A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  26. Reading Requirement: Conclusions •Reading requirement helps students succeed at higher rates in English 101A. •Reading requirement helps students at the lowest level of developmental writing succeed in their classes. •Students in developmental writing classes benefit from enrolling concurrently in a developmental reading class at the same level. A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  27. More data Kuehner’s sections (May 2011) 162 to 101A Success Rate: 60% 163 to 101A Success Rate: 82% A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  28. More data Basic Skills Cohort Tracker (Spring 2011) 162 to 101A Success Rate: 58.8% 163 to 101A Success Rate: 67.5% A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  29. More data Fall 2008: Kuehner grades in 162 A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  30. Student Surveys ESL students in English 101A (N=28) Question: Did you find the reading in 101A difficult? Student Answers: No (N=15) Yes (N=7) Ambiguous (N=4) A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  31. Student Surveys Question: Did you find the reading in 101A difficult? Student Answers: • “Reading in 101A is not that difficult” • “I think the reading in 101A is easier than writing” • “English 101A focus on writing more than reading” • “I found that the reading in 101A was difficult for me” A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  32. Student Surveys Question: Did the reading classes you have taken prepare you for the reading material in 101A? Student Answers: Yes (N = 9) No (N = 4) Ambiguous (N = 6) A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  33. Student Surveys Question: Did the reading classes you have taken prepare you for the reading material in 101A? Student Answers: • “since I took 162 and 163 before and I am ok with reading selection.” • “The class I have taken had improved my reading skill a great deal, but I found that the reading material in 101A is much harder than pervious classes.” • “Compare to the articles that I read in the ENGL 163, the articles in ENGL 101A are longer and harder. The ENGL 163 did not prepare me a lot for the reading material in 101A.” A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  34. Student Interviews • Why are some students successful in English 101A and what do they do to help themselves succeed? • What challenges do basic skills students encounter when they enter English 101A and how do they successfully meet those challenges? A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  35. Student Interviews • Interviewed four basic skills students taking English 101A • not a random sample • interviews not standardized • two native speakers; two non-native • two males, two females • one learning disabled • one “older” A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  36. Student Experiences • Chen, second-language learner • struggling in 101A • problems with constructing clear sentences • not enough guidance on papers • “We don’t do anything in class—just discuss the readings.” • homework, but no feedback on writing before a paper is due A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  37. Student Experiences • Chen’s advice • get more feedback on writing • do more writing, less discussing, in class • “go step by step, give examples, and break it down for students” • handouts, especially with examples of sentences and sample essays, guidance, and feedback A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  38. Student Experiences •Hanh, “older” second-language learner • enjoyed reading and writing assignments in English 101A • teacher has high expectations for class • teacher doesn’t help students with writing during class; mostly discuss the readings • able to apply skills from 163 in 101A • husband helps her proofread her papers A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  39. Student Experiences •Hanh: Lessons and advice • students benefit from having support at home • students can apply strategies learned in previous classes • Hanh’s advice: students should receive more writing instruction in class A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  40. Student Experiences • Kristin, native-speaker, high school grad. • lots of articles and readings, not sure how they all connected • didn’t always know what was being talked about in the articles • in-class essays count more than out of class papers • lots of work in 101A A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  41. Student Experiences • Kristin’s advice • work in previous class helped: summaries, cite, quote, rules about plagiarism • previous classes should include more writing • should be rules for how long papers should be • students should write down words they don’t know • students should also be required to read a book on their own and do a class presentation • teachers should also not accept late homework A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  42. Student Experiences • Mark, learning disabled student • struggled in 101A: first writing “D-” • readings are long and complicated; lots of “big words” and doesn’t always get main point • teacher lectures nonstop • lots of handouts • confusing when teacher disagrees with the book • does not like seeing model essays or peer editing A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  43. Student Experiences •Mark: Lessons and advice • help from DSPS tutors • help from former English prof. • visited English prof. during office hours • persisted; studied 6-7 hours/day A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  44. Student Experiences: Success Four students were successful • passed English 101A in one semester • Hanh “A”, Mark & Kristin “B” • Hanh, Mark, &Kristin successfully completed English 101B next semester • Fall 2011, Chen transferred to UC Berkeley • Mark has selected a major and completed his application to transfer to a CSU. A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  45. Conclusions • Focus on writing in transfer-level composition • write sentences • look at model sentences, paragraphs, essays • Students benefit from support • family, tutors, instructors to help with writing • friends & friendly teachers in class • Persist despite challenges • Stick with class, do all the work, get help • Benefit from direct, explicit instruction A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  46. Data Summary • Institutional data (success, retention rates) • Individual section data (success rates) • Student surveys • Student interviews • Student grades A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  47. Reading Requirement: Research •Is developmental reading effective? YES = Developmental reading course seems to improve student success as measured by persistence (Pinkerton 2010) YES = Taking and passing a developmental reading class helps student success as measured by GPA (Cox, Friesner, & Khayum 2003) A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  48. Reading Requirement: Research •Is developmental reading effective? NO: Remedial reading class does not help students succeed in transfer-level composition (Calcagno & Long 2008) A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  49. Reading Requirement: Research •Is developmental reading effective? NO & YES: Remedial reading lowers the probability of obtaining a degree for four-year students but raises the probability for community college students (Attewell, Lavin, Domina, & Levey 2006) NOT CLEAR: Students who took a developmental reading course did as well as students who did not in the “gatekeeper” English course (Jenkins, Jaggars, & Roksa 2009) A. Kuehner, Ohlone College

  50. Further Research • Number of students in 101A: prerequisite vs. placed • Success of students in 101A: prerequisite vs. placed • Success of developmental students in 101A before/after reading requirement • More student success interviews A. Kuehner, Ohlone College