Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The English Monarchy Faces of History: Eleanor of Aquitaine Other European Monarchies Map: The Holy Roman Empire The Growth of Monarchies
The Growth of Monarchies Main Idea The power of kings grew and the nature of monarchy changed across Europe in the early Middle Ages. • Reading Focus • How did the power of the English monarchy grow and change? • How did kings increase their powers in the other monarchies of Europe?
Anglo-Saxon England Danish Vikings • Anglo-Saxon rulers descendants of Angles, Saxons who invaded in 400s • For most of period, England divided into seven small kingdoms • Each had own laws, customs • 800s, Danish Vikings invaded, conquered several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, not all of England • 878, Viking campaign cut short by Alfred the Great, king of Wessex in southern England The English Monarchy England was one of the first countries in Europe to develop a strong central monarchy. Under the Anglo-Saxons, who first unified the country, and then under the Normans, who conquered the Anglo-Saxons, the English kings exercised considerable power. Alfred drove the Viking forces north of London to what became the Danelaw, a territory under Viking control.
William Strong King • William decided to take crown by force; gathered army, sailed for England where Harold met him • Two armies fought in Battle of Hastings; William won • Became King William I of England, known as William the Conqueror • William stronger king than Anglo-Saxon rulers • Claimed all English land as personal property • Divided land into fiefs for his Norman soldiers; new nobility created, all owing loyalty to king The Norman Conquest • Alfred’s descendants ruled England for most of next two centuries • 1066, king died without heir; two men claimed throne: Harold, Anglo-Saxon nobleman from England; William, duke of Normandy in France • Supported by English nobility, Harold named new king
Domesday Book • William ordered survey taken to learn more about kingdom • Wanted to know who lived in each part of England, what they owned, how much they could afford to pay in taxes • Resulting in Domesday Book, used to create central tax system for England • French Culture • William, Normans introduced elements of French culture into England • Most of England’s new nobles born in France, spoke French, practiced French customs • Most of lower classes kept old Anglo-Saxon language, habits
More Territories More Lands • Even more territories in France added when Henry married powerful French duchess, Eleanor of Aquitane • Together they ruled England, half of France • In theory, French holdings made English kings vassals of king of France • In practice, kings of England stronger than kings of France, ignored feudal obligations • Kings following William gained even more power as time passed • New power came from acquisition of new lands, many in France • Descendants inherited position as duke of Normandy; great-grandson Henry II also son of a French duke • Henry inherited father’s lands in France, which became part of England The English in France
Nobles’ Concerns New Rights • Nobles concerned their rights would be taken away • 1215, concerns reached crisis point under King John • John caught in war with France, lost almost all of England’s French holdings • Tried to raise money with new tax on nobility • Nobles refused tax, took up arms against king • Rebellious nobles forced John to accept document outlining their rights, Magna Carta • Restricted king’s power; even kings not above the law • King had to obtain consent of nobles before raising taxes • Ended king’s ability to arrest, punish people without cause or take property illegally Magna Carta By about 1200 the power of the English king started to worry some nobles. They feared kings would abuse their powers.
Parliament • Dissatisfaction • Magna Carta addressed many concerns, but some nobles still not satisfied • King constantly asked for approval to raise taxes of which they disapproved • 1260s, nobles began another rebellion to obtain say in how kingdom was run • Parliament • As part of agreement to end rebellion, king agreed to meet with members of nobility, clergy, middle class to discuss key issues facing country • Resulting council developed into English governing body, Parliament • Powers • For several years the powers of Parliament remained undefined • Edward I one of first kings to clarify role of Parliament, work effectively with governing body
1295, Parliament summoned by Edward included nobles, clergy, representatives from every English county, town Had power to create new taxes, advise king on lawmaking, royal policy Edward strengthened England’s central government, reformed system of laws Saw Parliament as tool for strengthening monarchy, not limiting it; kept Parliament in secondary role to power of king Central Government Strengthened
Summarize How did Magna Carta and Parliament change the English monarchy? Answer(s): reduced the king's power, formed a council (Parliament) that would create new taxes and advise the king on lawmaking
France Capetians Power • After Charlemagne, kings of France did not rule much territory • Limited to area around Paris, Orleans • Rest in hands of powerful nobles • Mid-900s, one noble family rose to power when one member elected king • Hugh Capet, successors extended power throughout France • Sometimes Capetians fought local nobles for power • Other times created allegiances • By 1300, ruled almost all of modern France Other European Monarchies The changes in the English monarchy were unique. During the Middle Ages, kings in other European countries also worked to gain more power, but their experiences were different from those of he English rulers.
Holy Roman Empire • Empire Split • Emperor Charlemagne had unified most of western Europe into one empire • After his death, the empire split into two parts • Western part became France; eastern part became known as Germany • Germany • France remained somewhat unified under one king • Germany separated into several small states, each with own ruler, or duke • 936, Otto the Great gained enough support to become king of the Germans • Otto • Worked to unite German lands, conquered parts of northern Italy • 962, aided Pope John XII, rewarded by being named Emperor of the Romans • Territories united under Otto became known as Holy Roman Empire
Description of Empire • Holy Roman Empire • Called holy because empire had pope’s support • Called Roman because Charlemagne had title Emperor of the Roman People • Holy Roman Emperors • Made decisions, passed laws with help of dukes • Dukes maintained full authority on own lands • Emperors Elected • 1100s, Holy Roman emperors did not inherit position, were elected upon death of emperor • Group of electors—dukes, archbishops—chose successor • Crowned by Pope • Person chosen by electors had to travel to Rome • Pope had to crown new emperor before his power fully recognized
Fighting Moors Campaigns • 722, Christian rulers began to fight Moors, drive them out of Europe • Christian rulers continued westward push, little success until 1000s • Civil war had broken out in Muslim Spain, weakening Moorish leadership • Christian states began series of campaigns to retake Iberian Peninsula, called the Reconquista • 1085, king of Castile won great victory over Moors, inspired rulers of two other Christian kingdoms to join in the Reconquista Spain and Portugal • Growth of monarchy in Spain, Portugal coupled with religious struggles • Today the two countries share Iberian Peninsula, which had been conquered by Muslims in early 700s • Muslims, called Moors by Christians, built powerful state centered in city of Cordoba. • Christians ruled only few kingdoms in far northern part of peninsula
Victory over Moors • Victories • Together three Iberian kingdoms won victory after victory over Moors • Early 1100s, Portuguese drove Moors completely out of their lands, established Kingdom of Portugal • Pushing South • Rulers of Aragon and Castile continued to push south, captured Cordoba 1236 • Christians pushed Moors almost all the way out of Spain within a few years • Moors not driven completely off Iberian Peninsula until 1492 • Modern Spain • Modern Spain has origins in late 1400s • Royal marriage between rulers of Aragon and Castile united two kingdoms • Combining countries and power, they ruled one of strongest countries in Europe
Analyze How did rulers in France, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain gain power? Answer(s): by acquiring new land and territories through alliances, marriage, and conquest