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Filioque Controversy. By Maddie Keller and Shannon Heflin. By Maddie Keller and Shannon Heflin. Why was the addition of the filioque to the Nicene Creed such a conflict that it led to the Schism of 1054?. What is the filioque ? . Definition: The Latin term for “And from the Son”.

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filioque controversy
FilioqueControversy

By Maddie Keller and Shannon Heflin

By Maddie Keller and Shannon Heflin

slide2

Why was the addition of the filioque to the Nicene Creed such a conflict that it led to the Schism of 1054?

what is the filioque
What is the filioque?
  • Definition: The Latin term for “And from the Son”
who when where
Who, When, where

Pope Nicholas, Photius

9th century

Rome and Constantinople

  • Who?
  • When?
  • Where?
slide5

WHO WAS PHOTIUS?

  • Successor of Ignatius
  • Patriarch of Constantinople
  • Represented the Orthodox Church
slide6

ORIGIN OF THE FILIOQUE

  • Council of Alexandria (362) condemns Macedonius and his followers (the Pneumatomachi) for teaching that the Holy Spirit derives from the Son alone.
    • This conflict stays in the east and is of short duration
  • It may have originated in Spain, as Arianism was spreading.
    • Arianism taught that Jesus is like God, instead of being one and the same as God
  • The Franks were the first to make the Filioque official in the 7th century
    • The pope, Pope Leo the III did not support the filioque
  • The first undoubted denial of the Holy Spirit coming from both the Father and the Son is in the 7th century.
  • In the second half of the 9th century, Photius denies the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son and opposes the insertion of filioque into the Constantinopolitan creed.
the controversy is it a heresy
The controversy- is it a heresy?
  • The Orthodox (Greek) Christians believed that any change to the Nicene Creed was a heresy.
    • There had been many opportunities in previous ecumenical councils (Ephesus, Chalcedon, Nicea) to make these changes. Changes like the filioque could only be made at such ecumenical councils.

Council of Nicea, 325

the holy spirit descends
The holy spirit descends…

East Church

West Church

From the Son

  • Through the Son
so why did it cause a schism
So why did it cause a schism?
  • Well, first of all, it was not the only cause for the schism. There were other factors.
  • Basically, the Franks were a dominate western power and since they adopted the Filioque, it spread throughout their kingdom, which was mostly Christian.
  • Photius, as the patriarch of Constantinople (in the east), condemned this, along with other western theology and practice.
  • Pope Nicholas did not support Photius.
why did photius condemn the west
Why did Photius condemn the west?
  • In other words, he said the Filioque was a heresy.
  • Along with other condemnations, he mainly condemned the Filioque.
  • Why? Because it had not been approved at an ecumenical council and it made the origin of the Holy Spirit confusing.
the pope s response
The Pope’s response
  • The pope condemned Photius’s views.
afterwards
Afterwards…
  • The Pope died and Photius softened his views, thus preventing a permanent split in the Church for the time being.
slide14

After the Controversy

  • Now, the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son do not show any being as less than the other, but rather it shows that the procession of the person sent from the person who sends.
  • In the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) the filioque is declared a dogma of faith.
  • It is declared dogma again in the Second council of Lyons in 1274
  • Once more in the Council of Florence (1438-1445)
today
Today….
  • It is acknowledged that the Filioque is inerrant truth
  • It can be found in our current Nicene Creed,
    • “I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son….”
  • The teaching of Sacred Scripture on the double procession of the Holy Spirit has been faithfully preserved in Christian tradition.
works cited
WORKS CITED
  • Pennock, Michael. "Conflicts with Church Authority." The Church in the Middle Ages. This Is Our Church: A History of Catholicism. Notre Dame: Ava Maria Press, 2007. 112-13. Print.
  • Withun, David. The Filioque: An Orthodox Perspective. Youtube. Youtube, 29 July 2009. Web. 21 Jan. 2014. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoFdou1zM-I>.
  • "Saint Photius." Third Edition: An Orthodox Guide to the Filioque. David Withun, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2014. <http://www.oocities.org/trvalentine/orthodox/workinprog_filioque.html>.
  • "Saint Photius." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 24 Jan. 2014. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/457678/Saint-Photius.
  • Maas, Anthony. "Filioque." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 21 Jan. 2014<http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06073a.htm>.