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Chapter 13 – Lipids 13.10 – 13.12. By: Mackenzie Stuck & Carlie Strawser . 13.10 What are some of the physiological roles of steroid hormones?. Cholesterol: Starting material for the synthesis of steroid hormones Aliphatic side chain on the D ring is shortened

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chapter 13 lipids 13 10 13 12

Chapter 13 – Lipids13.10 – 13.12

By: Mackenzie Stuck & Carlie Strawser

13 10 what are some of the physiological roles of steroid hormones
13.10 What are some of the physiological roles of steroid hormones?
  • Cholesterol: Starting material for the synthesis of steroid hormones
    • Aliphatic side chain on the D ring is shortened
      • Removal of the six – carbon unit
    • Secondary alcohol group
      • Oxidized to a ketone
    • Progesterone: resulting molecule
adrenocorticoid hormones
Adrenocorticoid Hormones
  • Product of Adrenal Glands
    • “Adjacent to the renal”
  • Two groups
    • Mineralocorticoids
      • Regulates concentration of ions
    • Glucocorticoids
      • Control carbohydrate metabolism
  • “Corticoid”
    • Indicates the secretion is the cortex of the gland
ex mineralocorticoids
Ex: Mineralocorticoids
  • Aldosterone
    • Enhances re-absorption of Na ions in the kidneys
    • Increases the loss of Potassium
    • Controls tissue swelling
ex glucocorticoids
Ex: Glucocorticoids
  • Cortisol
    • Increases glucose and glycogen concentrations
    • Expense of other nutrients
    • Cortisone (ketone derivative)
    • Used to treat:
      • Inflammatory diseases
      • Rheumatoid arthritis
      • Bronchial asthma
sex hormones
Sex Hormones
  • Testosterone (male)
    • Promotes normal growth of the male genital organs
    • Increased testosterone
      • Deep voice
      • Facial and body hair
slide7

Estradiol

    • Synthesized from testosterone
      • Aromatization of the A ring
    • Regulates cyclic changes in the uterus and ovaries
      • Menstrual cycle
      • Increases the level of Estradiol
      • Luteinizing Hormone (LH) causes Ovulation
    • Prepare uterine lining for fertilization
      • No fertilization = decrease
13 11 what are bile salts
13.11 What are bile salts?
  • Bile Salts
    • Oxidized products of cholesterol
      • 1st: cholesterol is oxidized to the trihydroxy derivative
      • 2nd: end of aliphatic chain is oxidized to the carboxylic acid
      • 3rd: forms an amide bond with an amino acid
    • Taurine
      • Sports drinks
physical properties of bile salts
Physical properties of bile salts
  • Powerful detergents
    • 1 end
      • Strongly hydrophilic
    • Rest of the molecule
      • Largely hydrophobic
    • Can disperse dietary lipids
    • facilitates digestion
    • Similar to the action of soap on dirt
      • Remove bile salts in 2 ways
    • Break down products of cholesterol
      • Solubilize cholesterol
13 12 what are prostaglandins thromboxanes and leukotriens
13.12 What are prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leukotriens?
  • Prostaglandins
    • A group of fatty-acid-like substances
    • Discovered in the 1930’s by
      • Kurzrok
      • Leib
    • Ulf Von Euler
    • Named it thinking it came from prostate gland
    • Small amount in both sexes
cyclooxygenase cox
Cyclooxygenase (COX)
  • Catalyzing enzyme in the presence of arachidonic acid synthesized in the body creating prostaglandins
    • Two types
      • COX – 1
        • PGE2 (Prostaglandin E group)
          • Carbonyl group at the 9th carbon
          • Lowers blood pressure
          • Used as a decongestant
          • Induces labor
slide12

COX – 2

    • Responsible for making prostaglandins
    • Occurs when inflammatory cells interact with resident cells because the tissue is injured
thromboxanes
Thromboxanes
  • A class of arachidonic acid
    • Drived from PGH2
    • Has a cyclic acetal ring
    • induces platelet aggregation
      • thromboxanes A2 causes blood to clot more
      • NSAI in COX enzymes
        • can cause excessive bleeding