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BODY COMPOSITION. What is body composition?. How the body is made up. Split into 2 components. Fat mass refers to a persons percentage of body weight stored as fat (within adipose tissue) Lean body mass , weight of the rest of the body (bones, muscles, organs, tissue )

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what is body composition
What is body composition?

How the body is made up. Split into 2 components.

  • Fat mass refers to a persons percentage of body weight stored as fat (within adipose tissue)
  • Lean body mass, weight of the rest of the body (bones, muscles, organs, tissue)
  • Height and weight are not always a good indicator of body composition
size in relation to sport
Size in relation to sport
  • Every sport has an ideal size for their requirement e.g. Compare high jump to sumo what are the needs of the competitors?
  • Weight is not that important its body composition that an athlete will be concerned about
  • Muscles weighs around 3 times more than fat so being heavier may not be a detriment
body mass assessment
Body mass assessment

Hydrostatic Weighing

  • Athlete submerged in water
  • Difference between dry and wet weight gives percentage fat
  • Fat is less dense and floats in water
  • Most common and accepted method
  • Most accurate but least available method
  • Only estimated density of fat which varies to age, gender, race
body mass assessment7
Body mass assessment

Bioelectrical Impendence Spectroscopy (BSI)

  • Low safe electrical current passed through body on body fat scales
  • Fat gives resistance to current (impedance)
  • Results set against height and weight chart, scales then give % fat
  • Measurement is affected by hydration
  • It uses estimates of population so not appropriate for elite athletes with more lean muscles tissue
body mass assessment8
Body mass assessment

Skinfold measurement

  • Skinfold callipers measure in mm the level of fat below skin from selected body sites
  • Sum of these measurements estimates fat %
  • Locations vary but usually, tricep, bicep, subscapular and suprailliac
  • Most widely used as cheap
  • Lots of measurements so accurate
  • Testers need to be trained and measure specific sites
body mass index bmi
Body mass index (bmi)
  • Measure of weight against height
  • Weight in Kg’s / Height in Metres Squared
  • Men range 20.1-25.0 Women range 18.5-23.8
  • Does not directly measure fat but is correlated to body composition
  • Better estimate to overweight/obesity than other methods
  • Not suitable, for young, elderly, pregnant or athletes
  • Athletes heavy muscles mean this is disproportionate
  • Used a government standard test for health
bmi scale
BMI Scale
  • Below 18.5 Underweight
  • 18.5-24.9 Normal
  • 25-29.9 Overweight
  • 30-34.9 Obese
  • 35+ Very obese
  • Calculate this BMI
  • Weight 124 KGs Height 1.96 m

1.96 x 1.96 = 3.84 m2

124 / 3.84 = 32.3 BMI JONAH LOMU

overweight and obesity
  • Occur as a result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure
  • If energy intake is greater than expenditure weight will increase
  • However increasing muscle mass will also will also increase weight!
energy expenditure
Energy expenditure

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

  • The lowest amount of energy required for minimum energy expenditure at normal rest levels (after 8hrs sleep and 12 hrs fasting)

Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)

  • Does not include the measure of sleep so is generally used more frequently
an average day
An average day
  • 60-75% is RMR
  • 20-30 Physical activity
  • Rest energy used when eating, absorbing and digesting food (thermic effect)
  • Add all 3 to get Body's Total Metabolic Rate
enegy intake
  • On average men 2550 calories, women 1940 per


  • Varies depending on?
  • Lifestyle, age, height, weight, activity, body composition.
  • A balanced diet looks like this (%’s)
  • 10-15 protein
  • No more than 30 fat
  • 55-60 Carbohydrate
calorie intake
Calorie Intake
  • Obviously the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure determines your total body weight
  • Balance of the 5 a day? Find these out
  • Depending on your diet calories can come from proportionally the 3 energy fuels, carbs, fats, proteins
health implications
Health implications
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer
  • Cardio-vascular disease
  • Joint stress
  • psychological harm
  • Under performance
info for extended questions
Info for extended questions
  • Huge increase in past 10 years
  • Britons amongst heaviest in Europe
  • By 2050 60% men, 50% women clinically obese
  • Only 5% of children walk to school 80% 20 years ago
  • Cost of obesity to UK society by 2050 £50 Billion
  • Obesity causes 18 sick days per year
effects of phys act on body comp
Effects of phys act. on body comp
  • Increase activity means increased number of calories burned
  • Increased calorie burn even when activity has stopped post-exercise
  • Increases lean body tissue which burns more calories
  • Exercise increases the mobilisation of fats as energy fuel
  • Therefore increase RMR when even at rest