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PURSUIT Summer School Cambridge, UK August 31, 2011. Applications and Requirements. Arto Karila Aalto-HIIT [email protected] ICT and productivity.

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Applications and requirements

PURSUIT Summer School

Cambridge, UK

August 31, 2011

Applications and Requirements

Arto Karila


[email protected]

Ict and productivity
ICT and productivity

  • It is generally believed that increasing use of ICT is the most important single tool for increasing productivity (see e.g. OECD study “ICT and Economic Growth…”)

  • Typically deployment of ICT has increased productivity by 10 to 20 %, especially when processed have been revised at the same time

  • With mobile solutions even 40% increases have been achieved

  • Experience from developing countries shows that ICT can boost productivity there at least as much as in developed countries

  • We are still probably utilizing less than 10% of the opportunities of ICT

Opportunities of ict
Opportunities of ICT

ICT can be utilized a lot more in all areas of life:

  • Public sector:

    • Health and elderly care

    • Education

    • All public services

    • True openness and direct participation

  • Enterprises:

    • Logistics, ERP, CRM, groupware, …

    • Mobile access to business-critical systems

    • Networking with partners, customers, and others

    • Integration of voice and video

Opportunities of ict continued
Opportunities of ICT (continued)

  • Private life:

    • Social media

    • Entertainment (TV, music, gaming etc.)

    • Secure and mobile access to public and private services:

      • Health, social services, taxes etc.

      • Education

      • Banking

      • etc.

        All this requires a lot from the underlying network

Computer networking
Computer networking

  • Computer networking was developed for mainframes(on the left ENIAC and on the right IBM S/360)

  • Sharing devices: computers, mass memory, printers etc.which have addresses

  • Traffic is point-to-pointbetween two devicesor network interfaces

  • The old paradigm stilllives even though the world around has completely changed

  • Something has to bedone about this

Problems with the current internet
Problems with the current Internet

  • Over the past 30 years, several major changes have been made to the Internet – always at the last moment

  • Internet’s success is largely based on its ability to adapt to the changing requirements

  • With these changes, the end-to-end principle is already destroyed by middle-boxes

  • We have reached a point, where the Internet is ossified and new transport protocols are virtually impossible

  • See: Why the Internet only just works, M Handley, BT Technology Journal, Vol. 24 N:o 3, July 2006

  • The Internet should be able to accommodate a wider range of tussles

  • We need a clear separation of the naming space and network functions

  • The Internet is working on the terms of the sender

Users applications data


Users – Applications – Data

  • Users, applications and data are involved in computing

  • All three are becoming increasingly mobile

  • The network has to bring these three together in a reliable, secure and efficient way




Clouds and grids
Clouds and Grids

  • Applications are increasingly run in cloud and grid environments

  • Cloud computing was created to cut down the cost and increase the flexibility of computing

  • In a cloud, dynamically scalable and often virtualized ICT resources are offered as services over the Internet

  • Google started packing cheap off-the-shelf computers and DC UPS’s into containers and placing them every-where, cutting the cost of data centers by a factor of 10

  • While clouds still are based on computing centers, grids can run in millions of PCs

  • With ever more powerful portable devices and the proliferation of mobile data, also grids will be increasingly mobile


  • The Internet has already scaled to a level that was unconceivable to its original developers

  • However, new trends will raise the scalability requirement of the Internet to a much higher level:

    • Proliferation of video (YouTube, IPTV etc.)

    • Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp)

    • Sensor networks

    • Internet of things

  • The amount of video traffic is growing rapidly in wireline and wireless networks

  • We have to be ready for dozens and hundreds of billions of nodes in the network in the near future

  • The capacities and abilities of nodes will vary highly

About applications
About applications

  • Most applications are still generic in nature and basically the same as in the 1980’s (e.g. office suites)

  • On the other hand, ERP systems (such as SAP) tend to cement the existing flawed processes

  • We should be developing applications that directly support work flows thereby increasing productivity

  • With modern tools (e.g. AJAX and QT) and methods (e.g. agile programming) we should be able to cut down the development time and cost by a factor of 10

  • Middleware is getting standardized and applications becoming component-based, easing integration

  • Applications are dealing with information, which is structured and linked


  • The network has to meet the needs of the applications of today and the future:

    • Mobility of users, data and computation

    • Scalability up to hundreds of billions of nodes

    • Efficient handling of video

    • In-built security, including protection against SPAM and DoS attacks

  • We are interested in information content – not who is storing it and where

  • Network has to support access to and processing of large amounts of hierarchically organized information

  • There needs to be a simple, powerful and efficient API for accessing the services of the network – the API could be generic and run on different networks


  • We need to be able to name and address information rather than hosts or interfaces

  • We need mechanisms for structuring information and limiting its visibility

  • We need to have a way to store information graphs in the network and retrieve and process them in an efficient way, not caring about their whereabouts

  • Information Centric Networking (ICN) and, more specifically, the Publish/Subscribe (pub/sub) paradigm seem to offer solutions to our needs

  • With pub/sub one does not receive anything that one has not specifically subscribed to, which makes SPAM and DoS attacks very difficult to implement