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D e s i g n o f e L e a r n i n g C o u r s e s

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  1. D e s i g n o f e L e a r n i n g C o u r s e s Christina Steiner 23 November 2003 SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  2. Overview • Introduction • Design of eLearning Courses • Converting Traditional Courses to eLearning • Specific Aspects of Creating eLearning Courses • Guidelines for Presentation of Content • Guidelines for Interactivity • Elements of Effective eLearning SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  3. Introduction • common educational model in classroom learning • „education = transmission of information“ • lecture approach • problems • passive learning • learner in a passive role • artificial divide between practice and instruction • presentation of concepts, principles, thoeries • unability to relate abstract concepts to specific cases • irrelevant subject matter and inappropriate assessment • content of courses driven by what can be easily tested and measured SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  4. Introduction • increasingly powerful and affordable computers and networking  increasing use of eLearning courses • benefits • increased access • potential for improved quality of instruction • new opportunities for learning activities • potential for individualisation of learning experience • deploying learning experiences more conveniently and cost-effectively for large numbers of learners • problems • replicating the „education = transmission of information principle“ • whitout exploiting the technology‘s capabilities • passive learning • lacking opportunities to apply knowledge in authentic contexts • complex skills/knowledge rarely included - hard to measure SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  5. Introduction • key principles for creating effective learning • learning by doing • goal-directed • learning from mistakes • learning from stories • authentic tasks, simulations etc. • things to consider when designing eLearning • thinking carefully about what the course should cover • organising learning material in a way that makes sense to learners • putting the learner in control • situating learning in authentic contexts • providing a rich set of resources and support to the learners • using appropriate course structure and delivery mechanism SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  6. Design of eLearning Courses • instructional design/development is the architecture of learning • planning, developing, and adapting instruction • based on learner needs and content requirements • critically important for elearning • designing effective instruction • instructional design development process • cycle of four main activities • analyse • determining the learning need • design • deciding how to meet the goals • build • creating learning experiences • evaluate • measuring effectiveness SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  7. Design of eLearning Courses • analyse • determine the need for instruction • setting global goal • analysing the potential learners • What do learners want to learn? • Where are they when they learn? • When will they take the course? • How can they learn best? • What technologies can learners use? • measuring learners‘ current knowledge • determining what the course must teach • comparing desired level of knowledge to learners‘ current knowledge • specifying the results that should be achieved • establishing instructional objectives SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  8. Design of eLearning Courses • design • dividing the high-level goal into lower-level subgoals • setting specific learning goals • identifying learning experiences • deciding how to implement the learning experiences • defining standards • e.g. colours, fonts, layout, button behaviour SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  9. Design of eLearning Courses • build • content outline • organising and developing content • creating learner-relevant examples • developing/selecting learning material • creating new learning objects • reusing existing learning objects • learning object repositories/libraries • e.g. Merlot, Ariadne, EdNA; collections of collections • selecting delivery methods • learning platforms SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  10. Design of eLearning Courses • evaluate • no course is perfect and every course can be improved! • offering a pilot course • analysing the results • revising the course • direct result of evaluation process • good instructional design is never a linear, one-time process, but an ongoing cycle of development SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  11. Converting Traditional Courses to eLearning • converting existing courses into web-based format • risk of utilising old methods of face-to-face delivery • ineffective courses • without utilising the opportunities offerd by the Internet • lack of conversion model • course redesign should aim in providing opportunities for building knowledge by purposefully interacting and actively participating SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  12. Converting Traditional Courses to eLearning • conversion must not mean replication • simply using eLearning technology to conduct a conventional training course at a distance • e.g. slide presentation with none of the interactivity and interaction of the classroom setting • things to consider • is eLearning right for the course, and the learners • costs, technologies • how to convert classroom learning materials and experiences to successful eLearning experiences • viewpoints of course producer and learner SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  13. Converting Traditional Courses to eLearning • phases of the conversion process • setting goals • goals for the eLearning course need not be the same as those for the classroom course • Are there goals that were unable to achieve in the classroom? • Can eLearning technologies allow to achieve them? • reanalysing learners • reassess learners to acquire additional information about them • specifying the course • describing the lessons, sections, topics, activities, practices, and other aspects of the course • converting materials • for each learning experience in the classroom course it has to be decided how to realise the same experience in remote learners SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  14. Converting Traditional Courses to eLearning • evaluating a prototype • testing pilot version of the course with actual learners • measuring subjective reactions, pedagogical effectiveness… • redesigning based on feedback • identifying ways for improving the course SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  15. Guidelines for Presentation of Content • using a variety of media (text, graphics, audio, video) • accomodating individual learning styles • text • using less text than in traditional instruction • longer texts • summary with links to definitions, references etc. • providing separate print file • well-defined text structure • cues and overviews • increasing readability • links to definitions of difficult terms • paragraph summaries, questions SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  16. Guidelines for Presentation of Content • graphics, images • including not too much graphical information • including captions and annotations • audio, sound effects • simple, short segments • easier to manage and store • video, animation • ‚fat media‘ • managing possible problems with downloading/viewing • providing CD-ROM • shocking course content in small segments • simultaneously downloading and viewing (streaming) SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  17. Guidelines for Interactivity • levels of interaction in online learning • between learner and content • between learner and instructor/tutor • e.g. e-mailing, chat • between learners • discussion groups/forums, chat, bulletin board • learning strategies/guidelines w.r.t. theses levels of interactivity SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  18. Guidlines for Interactivity • individualised learning • students take greater responsibility of learning • student-centered learning activities • hyperlinking • hypermedia gives learners more freedom in the choice of paths through the learning materials • pre-determined path of instruction vs. • freedom in navigation • orientation guidelines • identifying current position in the course • returning to previous position/starting point • strategies to aid orientation • e.g. progress bar, network representations SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  19. Guidelines for Interactivity • navigation guidelines • minimising amount of cognitive activity associated with controlling the interface • facilitating navigation • simplicity and consistency in design • site maps, hierarchical trees etc. • collaborative learning • important strategy for eLearning • avoiding isolation • sharing knowledge with others • ways of student interaction and collaborative learning • e.g. online discussion forums, e-mail • responding whenever you want • reflecting on the topic before responding • written nature supports learning • activity needs to be guided and structured SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  20. Elements of Effective eLearning • effectively designed educational materials • facilitate the achievement of desired learning outcomes • design of electronic learning materials • absence / reduction in face-to-face instruction • distinguishes online or eLearning from traditional instruction • requires different educational design considerations • often the educational ideal of eLearning matches poorly against the reality of delivery • paying attention to the core elements of e-learning design • reduce the gap between educational intention and the reality of student experience SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  21. Elements of Effective eLearning • design of eLearning resources requires understandings of diverse disciplines • education • multimedia content • resource publication • electronic technologies • six elements of effective eLearning design (Brown & Voltz, 2005) • activity, scenario, feedback, delivery, context, impact • focus on learning • learner experience • effectiveness SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  22. Elements of Effective eLearning • Activity • tasks providing an experience likely to lead students to the desired new understanding • rich learning activities • active involvement of the learner • allowing to make choices • engaging and challenging students • needs to be considered from the learners‘ perspective • example • Sonic Space City • exploring and manipulating sounds typically found in a city • Where Do Frogs Lay Their Eggs? • exploring freshwater environments to learn about where native frogs live and breed SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  23. Elements of Effective eLearning • Scenario • interesting context or scenario can assist the activity to have meaning • encouraging and assisting learners by an interesting scenario into which the activities are placed • story, role play, or simulation • learning or skill gained through the activity will be transferred to future real world situations • issues and problems of learning scenario similar to those in the real world • topics and themes that are relevant and interesting to the learner • target audience must be clearly identified • example • Community Enterprise • trying to make decisions that benefit the economy, society and the environment SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  24. Elements of Effective eLearning • Feedback • experience becomes knowledge through reflection • effective e-learning design should provide feedback • fostering learning from the experience • enabling learners to increase their level of skill and knowledge • variety of feedback strategies, e.g. • reflective responses to prescribed questions • semi-automated responses by the system to student actions and work • shared comments in online forums • personal responses via email, telephone, and post • effective use of feedback will enable an e-learning design to set up a dialogue within which the student participates SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  25. Elements of Effective eLearning • Delivery • good educational design relies on appropriate delivery to reach its full potential • conditions for defining appropriate or effective delivery depend on contextual variations on learning environments • aspects of delivery of e-learning related to the elements of activity, scenario, and feedback • maximising the engagement of the learner with the activity • enabling the communication of stimulating contexts • maximising opportunities for feedback and reflection SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  26. Elements of Effective eLearning • Context • some aspects of the usage context are implied by the previous elements • activity, scenario, and feedback • need to take into account the users’ profiles • delivery element needs to consider the technical infrastructure • contextual considerations • institutional objectives of the e-learning program • role and skills of any instructor • longevity of the resources • cultural sensitivities • the broader context within which the learning activity is delivered can influence many elements of e-learning design, e.g. • supervisory situation • stand alone resource, teacher input required etc. • fit into a sequence of learning • e.g. exploration, knowledge assessment SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  27. Elements of Effective eLearning • Influence • different perspectives of the influence of an eLearning intervention • personal influence on the learner • extent to which the content benefits the user • extent of learning • attitudes • social influence on the learning (and broader) community • extent to which people other than the learner will benefit • cultural appropriateness of the material • extent to which the design makes demands on others working with or supervising the learner • ethical values implicit in the design or content • environmental influence • extent to which the environment will benefit from the design • use of resources required to develop and deliver the eLearning materials • influence on environment of activities required by people using or administering the learning materials SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  28. Conclusion • eLearning is not a magic bullet • eLearning has to be well-planned and built properly in order to provide effective learning • general aim when designing eLearning: designing rich learning activities that allow students to learn with computers rather than from computers SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  29. Thank you for your attention!

  30. References • Brown, A.R. & Voltz, B.D. (2005). Elements of Effective e-Learning Design. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Retrieved November 20, 2005 from http://www.irrodl.org/content/v6.1/brown_voltz.html • Golas, K. (2000).  Guidelines for Designing Online Learning. Proceedings of Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference Proceedings.  Washington: National Training Systems Association. Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http://www.tspi.swri.org/pub/pdf/2000ITSEC_ONLINELEARNING.pdf • Graeme, D. (2004). Learning Object Reepositories. wwwtools For Education. Retrieved November 20, 2005 from http://magazines.fasfind.com/wwwtools/magazines.cfm?rid=1030 • Horton, W. (2000). Instructional Design for Online Learning. In B. Bruce, C. Fallon, & W. Horton (Eds.), Getting Started with Online Learning (pp. 11-41). San Francisco: Macromedia Inc. Retrieved November 20, 2005 from: http://www.macromedia.com/learning/online_learning_guide.pdf • Jona, K. (2000). Rethinking the Design of Online Courses. In R. Sims, M. O'Reilly & S. Hawkins (Eds.), Learning to Choose: Choosing to Learn, Proceedings of the 17th Annual ASCILITE Conference, Lismore (pp. 3-16). NSW: Southern Cross University Press. Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/coffs00/papers/kemi_jona_keynote.pdf SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning

  31. References • Klemm, W.R. (2001). Creating Online Courses: A Step-by-Step Guide. The Technology Source. Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http://technologysource.org/article/creating_online_courses/ • Tuzun, H. (2001). Guidelines for converting existing courses into web-based format. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 360-370). Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http://www.e-mentor.edu.pl/_xml/wydania/2/14.pdf • Willis, B. (n.d.). Distance Education at a Glance. Guide 3: Instructional DEvelopment for Distance Education. Engineering Outreach: University of Idaho. Retrieved Nobember 20, 2005 from http://www.uidaho.edu/eo/dist3.html SE Current Issues in Technology Enhanced Learning