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How to tackle the Cold War examination paper. SHS MARCH 2010. THREE. There are . sections of knowledge to the Cold War paper. SECTION 1. HOW DID THE COLD WAR DEVELOP? 1943 - 1956. What was the Cold War? Breakdown of the Grand Alliance How did Cold War begin?

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there are

THREE

There are

sections of knowledge to the Cold War paper

section 1
SECTION 1

HOW DID THE COLD WAR DEVELOP?

1943 - 1956

What was the Cold War?

Breakdown of the Grand Alliance

How did Cold War begin?

Truman Doctrine and Marshall Aid

Soviet Satellite States

Berlin Blockade/Airlift (NATO and Arms Race)

Hungarian Uprising.

section 2
SECTION 2

THREE COLD WAR CRISES: BERLIN, CUBA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA

1957 - 1969

Berlin

Cuba

Czechoslovakia

section 3
SECTION 3

WHY DID THE COLD WAR END?

DETENTE

Afghanistan and the collapse of Detente

American reaction to the invasion of Afghanistan

Ronald Regan and the Evil Empire / SDI

Gorbachev and his new thinking

Break up of Eastern Europe and the fall of the Berlin Wall

Fall of the Soviet Union

exam paper
EXAM PAPER
  • Each of the three sections above will have an exam question on it.
  • Each question will be broken down into THREE sub questions:
  • Question A (2 marks)
  • Question B (6 marks)
  • Question C (12 marks)
slide7
TIME

You have 1hr 15 mins to complete the WHOLE exam paper.

That’s 25 mins for each of the three sections of exam questions.

STICK TO THIS TIME ALLOCATION – YOU MUST ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS

slide8

QUESTION A

  • A questions are worth 2 marks, so you should plan to spend 2–3 minutes on them.
  • Part A questions will always ask you to DESCRIBE ONE piece of information. It may ask you to:
  • describe an action taken by…
  • describe one decision made by…
  • describe one cause of
  • etc
slide9

What you need to do…

  • The best answers will always:
  • STATE one relevant action, decision, reaction, cause etc.
  • AND also describe it with extra information.
slide10

Example question:

Describe one way Stalin controlled communism outside the USSR

STATE = Stalin controlled communism outside the USSR using the Cominform (1)

DESCRIBE= Cominform was an organisation which represented communist parties across Europe (1)

slide11

FOR QUESTION A THINK:

STATE (1)

DESCRIBE (1)

slide12

MORE EXAMPLES:

Describe one issue discussed at the Tehran Conference (1943)

STATE = At the Tehran Conference the big three discussed what to do when Hitler was defeated. (1)

DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = They agreed on a Soviet ‘sphere of influence’ in Eastern Europe and a Capitalist one in Western Europe. They could not agree what to do with Germany (1)

Describe one decision about governing Germany taken at the Potsdam Conference in 1945

STATE = At the Potsdam Conference the big three agreed to divide Germany and its capital Berlin. (1)

DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = Germany and Berlin where divided into 4 zones run by the USA, USSR, Britain and France. (1)

slide13

EVEN MORE EXAMPLES:

Describe one way the Marshall Plan helped Europe after 1947

STATE = The Marshall Plan aimed to reduce poverty to stop the spread of communism. (1)

DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = The USA offered $13 billion to re-build Europe. (1)

Describe one effect of MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) in the 1960’s

STATE = MAD referred to the USA and the USSR both having enough weapons to destroy the other side (1)

DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = Fear of being destroyed brought more stability to their relationship. (1)

slide14

EVEN MORE EXAMPLES:

Describe one effect of communist rule in Czechoslovakia in the 1960’s

STATE = Communist rule was unpopular in Czechoslovakia, a satellite of the USSR. (1)

DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = The secret police crushed all political opposition and the economy suffered under the rule of the communist leader, Novotny. (1)

Describe one international reaction to the invasion of Czechoslovakia

STATE = Western powers condemned the USSR(1)

DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = Some communists outside of Russia were angry at the USSR and turned to China for leadership. (1)

slide15

EVEN MORE EXAMPLES:

Describe one example of détente in space in the 1960’s

STATE = The Outer Space Treaty . (1)

DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = The USA and the USSR banned nuclear arms in space. (1)

Describe one outcome of the Karbul Revolution in 1978

STATE = Mohammed Taraki became the new communist leader and ally of the USSR (1)

DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = His communist government was unpopular and civil war broke out prompting the USSR to invade in 1979(1)

slide16

QUESTION B’s

Part (b) is worth 6 marks so you should aim to spend about 7–8 minutes on it.

Remember answer ONE of the Two questions available

B questions will always ask you to briefly explain something

slide17

What you need to do…

  • The best answers will always:
  • IDENTIFY THREE key features (3)
  • Give extra information/explain each of the three key features (3)
slide18

QUESTION B REQUIRES A

THREE PARAGRAPH ANSWER

Each paragraph dealing with ONE key feature and a sentence or two of detail/explanation

PARAGRAPH ONE:

The first key feature of …………… was……………………………... (1)

Further details of this feature are that……………….(1)

PARAGRAPH TWO:

The second key feature of …………… was…………………………….. (1)

Further details of this feature are that…………………………………..(1)

PARAGRAPH THREE:

The third key feature of …………… was…………………………….. (1)

Further details of this feature are that……………………………………… (1)

slide19

Each of the THREE paragraphs should always begin as follows….

PARAGRAPH ONE:

One key feature of…………. was …………..

PARAGRAPH TWO:

A Second key feature of…………. was …………..

PARAGRAPH THREE:

A third key feature of…………. was …………..

Each paragraph should then continue….

Further details of this feature are that…………….

slide20

Example question:

Briefly explain how the grand Alliance broke up after the Second World war

HOW WELL DID YOU DO?

slide22

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS….

Briefly explain how Germany was governed after the Second World War

PARAGRAPH 1

slide25

REMEMBER MY SELECTION OF KEY FACTS IS NOT ‘CORRECT’.

YOU CAN PICK KEY FACTS THAT ARE DIFFERENT – AS LONG AS YOU FOLLOW THE SAME PLAN IN TERMS OF WRITING THEM DOWN

slide26

MORE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS….

Briefly explain THE KEY FEATURES OF THE Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

PARAGRAPH 1

slide29

EVEN MORE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS….

Briefly explain THE KEY FEATURES OF THE Berlin Crisis (1961)

PARAGRAPH 1

slide32

QUESTION C

Question C is worth 12 marks so you should aim to spend about 15 minutes on it.

Part C questions will always ask you to explain why the relationship between the USA and the USSR changed between given years.

The years are the only thing that will change.

slide33

What you need to do…

  • The best answers will always:
  • Identify THREE causes or events
  • Use detailed information to explain each of these causes/events
  • Make a judgement about the three causes to show how they are linked
  • State which of the three is most important.
slide34

QUESTION C REQUIRES A

FIVE PARAGRAPH ANSWER

The first three paragraphs should all look the same.

PARAGRAPH ONE:

One cause which explains why relations changed between ……….. was…………... (1)

Further details of this are……………….(1)

This made relations worse (or better) because……………………….. (1)

PARAGRAPH TWO:

One cause which explains why relations changed between ……….. was…………... (1)

Further details of this are……………….(1)

This made relations worse (or better) because……………………….. (1)

PARAGRAPH THREE:

One cause which explains why relations changed between ……….. was…………... (1)

Further details of this are……………….(1)

This made relations worse (or better) because……………………….. (1)

slide35

Paragraph 4 – Link all the paragraphs together. How did one event lead to another. Or how did one event effect another (1)

Paragraph 5 – Which of the three events/causes used in paragraphs 1-3 was most important and why? (2)

Paragraph 5 should begin… The most important factor/event causing a change in the relationship between the USA and the USSR was………………… (1) because…………. (1)

slide36

Example question:

Explain why relations between the USA and the USSR got worse 1943-1949

The first three paragraphs should all look the same.

PARAGRAPH ONE:

One cause which explains why relations changed between 1943 and 1949 was the break up of the Grand Alliance (1)

Further details of this are that the Grand Alliance had been formed between the USA, USSR and GB to defeat Hitler. When the war ended the threat of Hitler no longer kept the Allies together. When in 1945 the USA used the first Atomic bomb the USA no longer needed the support of the USSR. (1)

This made relations worse because neither side needed the other and therefore they allowed their differences to surface (1)

slide37

PARAGRAPH TWO:

A second cause which explains why relations changed between 1943 and 1949 was the ideological differences that existed between the USA and the USSR (1)

Further details of this are that the USSR believed in communism where the Communist Party controlled the government and all aspects of the economy. The USA believed in democracy, with free elections, and capitalism, with a free market . (1)

This made relations worse because both sides thought their way of doing things was right and they felt the other side wanted to destroy there was of being (1)

slide38

PARAGRAPH THREE:

A third cause which explains why relations changed between 1943 and 1949 was that disagreements led to growing suspicion. (1)

Further details of this are that the two countries disagreed over practical issues There were several things that the big three could not agree on at Tehran and Yalta. By 1946, the ‘Long’ and Novikov Telegrams showed they were both suspicious of each other . (1)

This made relations worse because both sides thought the other was thinking of trying to destroy the other(1)

slide39

PARAGRAPH FOUR (REMEMBER THIS IS THE LINKING PARAGRAPH):

You now need to show how the three causes listed above are linked or connected or how one led to the other:

The break-up of the Grand Alliance was linked to the differences in ideologies, because the two sides could not understand one another. The telegrams also led the two sides to start mistrusting each other. (1)

slide40

PARAGRAPH Five (REMEMBER THIS IS THE JUDGEMENT PARAGRAPH):

You now need to state which one of the three causes was most important:

Different ideologies were the most important reason for worsening relations. They helped to break up the Grand Alliance. And because the USSR wanted to spread communism and Truman wanted to stop it, there was never any trust between them. (1)

slide41

MORE Example question:

Explain why there was a Cold War between 1947-1956

The first three paragraphs should all look the same.

PARAGRAPH ONE:

One cause which explains why there was a Cold War between 1947 and 1956 was any details about one of the following: the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Soviet satellite states, Cominform or Comecon (1)

Further details of this are that (if you had used Truman Doctrine) US President Truman was worried that communism would spread in Europe, so he introduced his Truman Doctrine. (1)

This made relations worse because(if you had used Truman Doctrine) Truman’s Doctrine said the USA would use military and economic means to stop communism spreading (1)

slide42

MORE Example question:

Explain why there was a Cold War between 1947-1956

The first three paragraphs should all look the same.

PARAGRAPH TWO:

A second cause which explains why there was a Cold War between 1947 and 1956 was any details about the government of Bizonia, Trizonia, the Belin Blockade or the Berlin Airlift(1)

Further details of this are that (if you had used Trizonia) In 1948, the Western Allies put their three zones together. (1)

This made relations worse because(if you had used Trizonia) When the Western Allies started to make Trizonia a democratic, capitalist state, this increased tension with the USSR.

slide43

MORE Example question:

Explain why there was a Cold War between 1947-1956

The first three paragraphs should all look the same.

PARAGRAPH THREE:

A third cause which explains why there was a Cold War between 1947 and 1956 was any details about NATO, Warsaw Pact or the Arms Race (1)

Further details of this are that (if you had used NATO) The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was set up in 1949. It was made up of the USA and its allies. They promised to defend each other if attacked. (1)

This made relations worse because(if you had used NATO) each side now tried to get as many weapons as possible (arms race). (1)

slide44

PARAGRAPH FOUR (REMEMBER THIS IS THE LINKING PARAGRAPH):

You now need to show how the three causes listed above are linked or connected or how one led to the other:

The Truman Doctrine made sorting out problems in Berlin more difficult. As the relationship got worse both sides created military alliances to protect each other. (1)

slide45

PARAGRAPH Five (REMEMBER THIS IS THE JUDGEMENT PARAGRAPH):

You now need to state which one of the three causes was most important:

Different ideologies were the most important reason for worsening relations as trust was impossible. (1)