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Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Syracuse University. Piping and Pumping. Process Design CEN 574 Spring 2004. Outline. Pipe routing Optimum pipe diameter Pressure drop through piping Piping costs Pump types and characteristics Pump curves NPSH and cavitation

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piping and pumping

Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

Syracuse University

Piping and Pumping

Process Design

CEN 574

Spring 2004

  • Pipe routing
  • Optimum pipe diameter
  • Pressure drop through piping
  • Piping costs
  • Pump types and characteristics
  • Pump curves
  • NPSH and cavitation
  • Regulation of flow
  • Pump installation design
piping and pumping learning objectives
Piping and Pumping Learning Objectives

At the end of this section, you should be able to…

  • Draw a three dimensional pipe routing with layout and plan views.
  • Calculate the optimum pipe diameter for an application.
  • Calculate the pressure drop through a length of pipe with associated valves.
  • Estimate the cost of a piping run including installation, insulation, and hangars.
List the types of pumps, their characteristics, and select an appropriate type for a specified application.
  • Draw the typical flow control loop for a centrifugal pump on a P&ID.
  • Describe the features of a pump curve.
  • Use a pump curve to select an appropriate pump and impellor size for an application.
  • Predict the outcome from a pump impellor change.
  • Define cavitation and the pressure profile within a centrifugal pump.
  • Calculate the required NPSH for a given pump installation.
  • Identify the appropriate steps to design a pump installation.
  • Appendix III.3 (pg 642-46) in Seider et al., Process Design Principals (our text for this class).
  • Chapter 12 in Turton et al., Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes.
  • Chapter 13 in Peters and Timmerhaus, Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers.
  • Chapter 8 in McCabe, Smith and Harriott, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering.
pipe routing
Pipe Routing
  • The following figures show a layout (looking from the top) and plan (looking from the side) view of vessels.
  • We want to rout pipe from the feed tank to the reactor.
plan view

piping chase


Plan View

steam header

40 ft

feed tank

60 ft

35 ft

50 ft


Layout View: Looking Down

steam header

40 ft



piping chase

45 ft

30 ft


10 ft


35 ft

50 ft


Plan View

piping chase


= out

= in

steam header

40 ft

feed tank

60 ft

35 ft

50 ft


Layout View

steam header

85 ft

30 ft



20 ft

35 ft

60 ft

10 ft

10 ft


pipe routing exercise
Pipe Routing Exercise
  • Form groups of two.
  • Draw a three dimensional routing for pipe from the steam header to the feed tank on both the plan view and the layout view.
size the pump
Size the Pump
  • Determine optimum pipe size.
  • Determine pressure drop through pipe run.

200 ft

globe valve

check valve

150 ft

100 gpm

optimum pipe diameter
Optimum Pipe Diameter

The optimum pipe diameter gives the least total cost for annual pumping power and fixed costs. As D , fixed costs , but pumping power costs .

optimum pipe diameter14


Optimum Pipe Diameter

Total Cost

Annualized Capital Cost

Pumping Power Cost

  • Two methods to determine the optimum diameter:

Velocity guidelines and Nomograph.

  • Example: What is the optimum pipe diameter for 100 gpm water.
using velocity guidelines
Using Velocity Guidelines
  • Velocity = 3-10 ft/s = flow rate/area
  • Given a flow rate (100 gpm), solve for area.
  • Area = (/4)D2, solve for optimum D.
  • Optimum pipe diameter = 2.6-3.6 in.

Select standard size, nominal 3 in. pipe.


3.3 in optimum diameter


-Convert gpm to cfm  13.4 cfm.

-Find cfm on left axis.

-Find density (62 lb/ft3) on right axis.

-Draw a line between points.

-Read optimum diameter from middle axis.

practice problem
Practice Problem
  • Find the optimum pipe diameter for 100 ft3 of air at 40 psig/min.
  • A = (s/50ft)(min/60 s)(100 ft3/min) = 0.033 ft2
  • 0.033 ft2 = 3.14d2/4
  • d = 2.47 in
piping guidelines
Piping Guidelines
  • Slope to drains.
  • Add cleanouts (Ts at elbows) frequently.
  • Add flanges around valves for maintenance.
  • Use screwed fitting only for 1.5 in or less piping.
  • Schedule 40 most common.
calculating the pressure drop through a pipe run
Calculating the Pressure Drop through a Pipe Run
  • Use the article Estimating pipeline head loss from Chemical Processing (pg 9-12).
  • P = (/144)(Z+[v22-v12]/2g+hL)
  • Typically neglect velocity differences for subsonic velocities.
  • hL = head loss due to 1) friction in pipe, and 2) valves and fittings.
  • hL(friction) = c1fLq2/d5
c1 = conversion constant from Table 1 = 0.0311.
  • f = friction factor from Table 6 = 0.018.
  • L = length of pipe = 200 ft + 150 ft = 350 ft.
  • q = flow rate = 100 gpm.
  • d = actual pipe diameter of 3” nominal from Table 8 = 3.068 in .
  • hL due to friction = 7.2 ft of liquid head
loss due to fittings
Loss Due to Fittings
  • K= 0.5 entrance
  • K = 1.0 exit
  • K=f(L/d)=(0.018)(20) flow through tee
  • K=3[(0.018)(14)] elbows
  • K=0.018(340) globe
  • K=0.018(600) check valve

Sum K = 19.5

hL due to fittings = c3Ksumq2/d4 = 5.7 ft of liquid head loss due to fittings.
  • hLsum=7.2 + 5.7 ft of liquid head loss
  • Using Bernoulli Equation

P = (/144)(Z+[v22-v12]/2g+hLsum)

P = ( /144)(150+0+12.9)= 70.1 psi due mostly to elevation. Use P to size pump.

elevation velocity friction and fittings

find the pressure drop
Find the Pressure Drop

400 ft

50 ft

check valve

400 gpm water

4 in pipe

estimating pipe costs
Estimating Pipe Costs

Use charts from Peters and Timmerhaus.


Fittings (T, elbow, etc.)






Note: not 2003 $

$/linear ft

pumps moving liquids
Pumps – Moving Liquids
  • Centrifugal
  • Positive displacement
    • Reciprocating: fluid chamber stationary, check valves
    • Rotary: fluid chamber moves
positive displacement reciprocating
Positive Displacement: Reciprocating
  • Piston: up to 50 atm
  • Plunger: up to 1,500 atm
  • Diaphragm: up to 100 atm, ideal for corrosive fluids
  • Efficiency 40-50% for small pumps, 70-90% for large pumps
positive displacement rotary
Positive Displacement: Rotary
  • Gear, lobe, screw, cam, vane
  • For viscous fluids up to 200 atm
  • Very close tolerances
comparisons centrifugal
Comparisons: Centrifugal
  • larger flow rates
  • not self priming
  • discharge dependent of downstream pressure drop
  • down stream discharge can be closed without damage
  • uniform pressure without pulsation
  • direct motor drive
  • less maintenance
  • wide variety of fluids
comparisons positive displacement
Comparisons: Positive Displacement
  • smaller flow rates
  • higher pressures
  • self priming
  • discharge flow rate independent of pressure – utilized for metering of fluids
  • down stream discharge cannot be closed without damage – bypass with relief valve required
  • pulsating flow
  • gear box required (lower speeds)
  • higher maintenance
centrifugal pumps38

simple and cheap

uniform pressure, without shock or pulsation

direct coupling to motor

discharge line may be closed

can handle liquid with large amounts of solids

no close metal-to-metal fits

no valves involved in pump operation

maintenance costs are lower


cannot be operated at high discharge pressures

must be primed

maximum efficiency holds for a narrow range of operating conditions

cannot handle viscous fluids efficiently

Centrifugal Pumps
moving gases
Moving Gases
  • Compression ratio = Pout/Pin
  • Fans: large volumes, small discharge pressure
  • Blowers: compression ratio 3-4, usually not cooled
  • Compressors: compression ratio >10, usually cooled.
    • Centrifugal (often multistage)
    • Positive displacement
pump curves
Pump Curves

For a given pump

  • The pressure produced at a given flow rate increases with increasing impeller diameter.
  • Low flow rates at high head, high flow rates at high head.
  • Head is sensitive to flow rate at high flow rates.
  • Head insensitive to flow rate at lower flow rates.
pump curve

Low flow at high head

Pressure increases with diameter

Head sensitive to flow at high flow rates

Pump Curve
npsh and cavitation
NPSH and Cavitation
  • NPSH = Net Positive Suction Head
  • Frictional losses at the entrance to the pump cause the liquid pressure to drop upon entering the pump.
  • If the the feed is saturated, a reduction in pressure will result in vaporization of the liquid.
  • Vaporization = bubbles, large volume changes, damage to the pump (noise and corrosion).
  • To install a pump, the actual NPSH must be equal to or greater than the required NPSH, which is supplied by the manufacturer.
  • Typically, NPSH required for small pumps is 2-4 psi, and for large pumps is 22 psi.
  • To calculate actual NPSH…

NPSHactual= Pinlet-P* (vapor pressure)

Pinlet = P(top of tank, atmospheric) + gh - 2fLeqV2/D

what if npsh actual npsh required
What if NPSHactual < NPSHrequired?


  • cool liquid at pump inlet (T decreases, P* decreases)
  • increase static head (height of liquid in feed tank)
  • increase feed diameter (reduces velocity, reduces frictional losses) (standard practice)
regulating flow from centrifugal pumps
Regulating Flow from Centrifugal Pumps
  • Usually speed controlled motors are not provided on centrifugal pumps, the flow rate is changed by adjusting the downstream pressure drop (see pump curve).
  • Typical installation includes a flow meter, flow control valve (pneumatic), and a control loop.
typical installation




Typical Installation

operator set-point

designing pump installations
Designing Pump Installations
  • use existing pump vendor, note spare parts the plant already stocks.
  • select desired operating flow rate, maximum flow rate.
  • calculate pressure drop through discharge piping, fittings, instrumentation (note if flow control is desired need to use pressure drop with control valve 50% open).
add safety factor to calculated head – 10 psig spec pump for 20 psig, 150 psig spec pump for 200 psig.
  • using head and flow rate, select impeller that gives efficient operation in region of operating flow rate.
  • vertical location of pump compared to level of influent tank (NPSH).
  • if want to control flow rate – spec and order flow meter and flow control valve also.