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Near-term Accelerator-Experiments Program Greg Bock Fermilab PAC Meeting Snowmass, June 2011 PowerPoint Presentation
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Near-term Accelerator-Experiments Program Greg Bock Fermilab PAC Meeting Snowmass, June 2011

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  1. Near-term Accelerator-Experiments ProgramGreg BockFermilab PAC MeetingSnowmass,June 2011

  2. Outline FermilabSchedule 2011-2018 Running Experiments Construction Projects Proposed Experiments Some Program Statistics Summary Concentrating on post-Tevatron period More details in upcoming talks

  3. Accelerator Operations Schedule Preliminary schedule: R&D, Construction / Commissioning, Operation (under consideration) Accel. complex shutdown

  4. Timeline for Future Projects Preliminary schedule: R&D, Construction / Commissioning, Operation (under consideration) Four accelerator-based experiments coming online in the near-term period

  5. Tevatron Experiments Going Strong! Anticipated final datasets: 12 fb-1 delivered 10 fb-1 collected Scores of new results and PhD’s each year Results and analysis plans in upcoming talks

  6. Intensity Frontier NOvA MicroBooNE g-2 MINERvA MINOS SeaQuest MINOS MiniBooNE MINERvA SeaQuest NOvA g-2 LBNE Mu2e Project X+LBNE m, K, nuclear, … n Factory ?? Now 2013 2016 2022 2019 P. Oddone, PAC Meeting , June 22, 2011

  7. Current Neutrino Program • FNAL has a very active • n program with 3 running • experiments operating 4 • detectors in 2 beamlines • and at 2 sites • Booster (8 GeV protons) • - MiniBooNE • - SciBooNE • - MicroBooNE MINOS MINERnA MiniBooNE Tevatron • NuMI (120 GeV protons) • - MINOS • - MINERnA • - ArgoNeuT • - NOvA Main Injector

  8. Fermilab Neutrino Physics Program Reveal the pattern of neutrino masses and mixings • What is the value of q13? • Is q23 maximal? • How are the masses ordered? • Is CP violated? • What are the neutrino masses? • Are neutrinos their own anti-particles? Discover if the situation is more complex than 3 neutrinos with Standard Model interactions • Are the LSND and MiniBooNE anomalies new physics? • Are neutrinos and anti-neutrinos oscillating differently in current experiments? Make neutrino engineering measurements that facilitate 1) and 2) above

  9. Experimental Thrusts in Neutrino Physics Reveal the pattern of neutrino masses and mixings • What is the value of q13? MINOS NOvALBNE • Is q23 maximal? MINOS NOvA LBNE • How are the masses ordered? NOvA LBNE • Is CP violated? LBNE • What are the neutrino masses? No plans to address at FNAL • Are neutrinos their own anti-particles? No plans to address at FNAL Discover if the situation is more complex than 3 neutrinos with Standard Model interactions • Are the LSND and MiniBooNE anomalies new physics? MiniBooNE MicroBooNE • Are neutrinos and anti-neutrinos oscillating differently in current experiments? MiniBooNE, MINOS  MINOS+ Make neutrino engineering measurements that facilitate 1) and 2) above • SciBooNE, MINERvA

  10. Long Baseline Neutrino Physics 013 Discovery Evolution arXiv:1005.3146 MINOS Neutrino/Antineutrino Results Neutrino oscillation physics is entering an exciting period, with several experiments under construction, or on the horizon, that have discovery potential. • What is 013? • Is there CP violation with neutrinos? • What is the mass hierarchy? NOvA, T2K, and reactor experiments could measure013in the coming years. MINOS reports interesting 2 sigma neutrino/antineutrino discrepancy.

  11. Short Baseline Neutrino Physics Neutrino Cross-Sections MiniBooNE sees hint of LSND-like oscillation in antineutrino mode. • Sterile Neutrinos?, Lorentz/CPT violation? • New interactions? Measurements of neutrino cross-sections in the few-GeV region are extremely relevant for oscillation physics. Short-Baseline Workshop held at Fermilab in May to discuss this physics. • New experiments to tackle anomalies, possibly with new KT-scale LAr detectors

  12. MiniBooNE Cross Sections Neutrino cross sections are not well-known below ~2 GeV MiniBooNE CC quasi-elastic cross section ~30% higher than “standard” QE prediction MINERnA, MINOS, ArgoNeuT If discrepancy is due to extra nucleons, MINERnA, MINOS, and ArgoNeuT are all capable of detecting them, and they cover the gap between MiniBooNE and NOMAD data!

  13. MiniBooNEExperiment 541m • 8 GeV protons, air-cooled • Be target, single magnetic • focusing horn, n and anti-n • Cerenkov detector filled with • 800 tons CH2, 1200+ PMTs

  14. MiniBooNE Outlook • plan is • to continue • running • anti-n’s • until the • 2012 • shutdown double the statistics from original MB anti-n publication Booster improvements increased MB from 2.5E16p/hr to 3E16p/hr (thanks to AD and proton source team!) • current projection: MB on the path to collect >1x1021 POT by March 2012

  15. MINOSExperiment • 120 GeV protons, • movable graphite • target, two horn • focusing system, • n and anti-n • two detectors to mitigate systematics • magnetized steel/scintillator tracking calorimeters ~5 kton L=735 km ~1 kton L=1km

  16. Shaft Fire at Soudan • fire started in Soudan mine shaft • at 9pm March 17th, 2011 • large amount of foam was pumped • in from the top of mine • lab occupancy has been re-established • ES&H participated in inspection of lab • - clean-up of laboratory is complete • - electronics powered-up normally • - magnet coil slowly ramped up • - shaft repairs are underway • May 19: MINOS FD fully operational • and running at full field, ready for beam

  17. MINOS Proton Delivery beam uptime: 67% (FY11) downtime due to target problems/investigations fire in Soudan mine special runs n n NT02 NT01 NT03 NT05 NT04 NT06 • total anti-n data: 3.2x1020 POT • (out of 4.2x1020 POT request) • plan to release this summer (~x2 more data) downtime due to target problems summer shutdown

  18. Phys. Rev. (Rapid Comm.) D82, 051102 (2010) MINOS ne appearance • Strongest limit for all but a small portion of dCP in the case of normal hierarchy. • Analysis with new ne event selection and improved analysis techniques for 8.2 x 1020POT to be presented Friday at Fermilab Wine and Cheese seminar.

  19. MINERnA Experiment • NuMI beam (same as MINOS) • shares NuMI near detector hall, L=1 km • fully active, finely segmented scintillator tracker surrounded • by calorimeters + additional targets upstream of active region MINOS ND acts as a muon spectometer

  20. MINERnA Highlights Over Past Year • tremendous progress over past year – completed full detector • installation (March 2010) and is successfully taking data • 03/11: MINERnA project received 2011 • DOE Secretary’s Award of Achievement • 03/11: 1st preliminary physics results • presented at NuInt11 • 04/11: cryogenic target installed • to run with He in LE beam • (currently undergoing safety review, • estimate 1st data with filled target in July)

  21. MINERnA: Event Kinematics Event deficit flat in Q2, not flat in neutrino energy. First look at QE physics from MINERnA! Absolute normalization predictions include: Flux simulation GENIE 2.6.2 MINERnA detector simulation

  22. NuMI Outlook • as of ~today: • - MINOS has collected 3.2x1020 POT anti-n • - MINERnA has collected 1.5x1020 POT n • run times requested in LE mode: • - MINOS: 4.2x1020 POT anti-n= (1.7 + additional 2.5)x1020 • - MINERnA: 4.9x1020 POT n = (4.0 LE + 0.9 special runs)x1020 • - MINOS has 76% of full request • - MINERnA has 31% of full request • current projection for remaining protons for NuMI between • now and March 2012 shutdown: 2.2x1020 POT • in this optimistic model and if remainder of run is n mode, • then both experiments would get to ~3/4 of their requests • - Directorate is considering strategies for extra running (PAC, June 2010) n

  23. NuMI nu/nubar running past year

  24. NOvA NOvA is a next generation experiment on the FermilabNuMI neutrino beam to search for nm- neandnm- neoscillations _ _ Of next generation experiments, NOvA uniquely provides information on the neutrino mass hierarchy, dCP, and possible differences in neutrino and antineutrino disappearance rates. • Far detector laboratory near completion at Ash River MN 810 km from FNAL. • First detector planes to be installed at end of this year. • Operating a prototype on surface at FNAL in NuMI and Booster neutrino beams • Upgrade to 700 kW NuMI beam intensity during shutdown in 2012. • First data starting in early 2013 • Far detector completed by end of 2013. NuMInm CCQE event in NOvA prototype Beneficial occupancy of Ash River lab 4/11

  25. MicroBooNE • MicroBooNE is a 170 ton Liquid Argon neutrino detector that will begin operations in 2013. • MicroBooNE has several goals: • Determine the nature of the MiniBooNE low-energy excess. • Make numerous cross-section measurements (many for the 1st time on LAr). • Measure background rates relevant for nucleon-decay searches at LBNE. • MicroBooNE serves as a technology test for future massive Liquid Argon detectors. Schematic of MicroBooNE Experiment Expected MicroBooNE Neutrino Sample

  26. SeaQuest/E906Drell-Yan at Fermilab • What is the structure of the nucleon? • What is d-bar/u-bar? • What are the non-perturbative QCD origins of the sea quarks? • The results on high-x sea quarks have implications for reach of LHC for W’ and Z’. Nucleon Sea Quarks • What is the structure of nucleonic matter? • How does the nuclear environment influence the anti-quarks? • These results are needed to check inclusion of high statistics neutrino data on nuclear targets into structure function fits • How do colored partons lose energy in cold nuclear matter? • First commissioning beam this summer. • Run for two – three years depending on FNAL schedule. • 50 times the count rate of previous 800 GeV experiment • . Nuclear Sea Quarks Energy Loss

  27. Fermilab’sTest Beam This facility is now typically booked 6 months in advance

  28. MINOS+ 4-10GeV range only covered by MINOS collaboration has proposed continued running in the NuMI-NOvA beam. 3000 CC events/year in 4-10GeV range in MINOS. (Have ~1500 events in this range after 5 years of LE running). Extended running would quickly improve existing MINOS 023, deltam2measurements, and also improve world measurement when combined with NOvA. Search for Non Standard Interactions

  29. High precision nuclear to deuterium ratio (A/D) measurements Current Vessel is rated for D2 as well as Helium Submitted LOI to Directorate to request advice on pursuing solutions to: Safety concerns for running D2 underground Acquiring 0.37tons of D2 Modest detector upgrades might extend physics reach even further n-Deuterium Scattering in MINERnA

  30. Possible Further Short-Baseline Running • MiniBooNE will run until the March 2012 shutdown, at which point they will have collected >1E21 POT in anti-n mode. • After analysis of this data, MiniBooNE will decide on submitting a proposal for future running. 6.46E20 POT in Nu Mode 5.66E20 POT in Anti-Nu Mode

  31. Pbar complex target ring The new g-2 experiment Follow up of BNL experiment but better: • Reuse the storage ring • 10x longer decay channel • Segmented calorimeters • Tracking • >20x statistics, >2x less systematics Coupled with a world wide program to interpret the measurement

  32. Mu2e • Expectation for a SUSY inspired rate pe • Sensitivity with booster based experiment = 3 x 10-17 (104TeV) • Sensitivity of 3 x 10-19 possible with Project X 104 MeV signal bkg Mu2e sensitivity: 3 x10-17 (LNP~104TeV)

  33. Program Relies on Upgrades to the Proton Source Tevatron ends LBNE NOvA MINERvA MINOS? MINERvA MINOS MiniBooNE Mu2e g-2 MicroBooNE Timeline for Fermilab Experiments in Coming Decade

  34. Fermilab Users Less optimistic (realistic): delay in LBNE / Project X

  35. Publications in Calendar 2010 # of Ph.D.s. with Fermilab facilities (excluding Cosmic Frontier, CMS, ..): ~100 per year

  36. Conclusions Throughout the period between now and the beginning of the LBNE/Project X era there will continue to be a strong accelerator-based program of experimental physics at Fermilab Fermilabwill have unique facilities for neutrino physics in the coming decade (on/off axis beams, long-baseline, short-baseline experiments, precision measurements).Throughout this period we will continue providing Test Beams to the community In a few years, Fermilab will begin a Muon Program with two world-class experiments With four brand new experiments emerging and others continuing, we have an exciting near-term program.

  37. FermilabNeutrino Program 8 GeV protons from the Booster • Neutrinos from Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) to… • MiniBooNE (running) • SciBooNE (completed in 2008) • MicroBooNE(seeking CD2) 120 GeV protons from the Main Injector • Neutrinos from NuMI to… • MINOS (running) • MINERvA(running) • NOvA(under construction) • MINOS+ (proposed) • Neutrinos from a new beamline to… • LBNE (seeking CD1)

  38. m + Dimuons from Drell-Yan SeaQuest Detector in the KTeV hall m - u q from sea in target q from MI proton u u Significant funding from DOE nuclear Detector installed Initial physics before 2012 shutdown High stats running after shutdown PDFs before and after last exp Lower beam E and larger coverage x20.5 High x = LHC Red: similar exp @ 800 GeV d / u fraction 0.5 Feynman x