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Cosmic Frontier at Fermilab Overview of Experiments and Strategy Craig Hogan Fermilab PAC June 7, 2013 PowerPoint Presentation
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Cosmic Frontier at Fermilab Overview of Experiments and Strategy Craig Hogan Fermilab PAC June 7, 2013
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  1. Cosmic Frontier at Fermilab Overview of Experiments and Strategy Craig Hogan Fermilab PAC June 7, 2013

  2. Cosmic Frontier Experiments at Fermilab • Dark Energy • Deep, precise surveys of the universe: map history of expansion and growth of structure to probe physics of cosmic acceleration • Dark Matter • Direct detection of WIMP dark matter particles • Highest Energy Cosmic Rays • Detailed study of rarest, largest cosmic ray showers • Quantum Geometry • Measure fidelity of space-time with Planck sensitivity 31 staff scientists, ~28 FTEs Mgmt Initiatives Holometer Cosmic Rays Dark Energy Dark Matter

  3. FCPA Scientists 33 staff scientists (22 FTEs) work on experimental particle astrophysics Additionally: 8 experimental postdocs 5 staff and 4 postdocs in theoretical particle astrophysics

  4. Theoretical Astrophysics • Vital connections between theory and experiment • Dark Matter phenomenology (Hooper, Buckley, Cholis) • Dark Energy and CMB (Dodelson, Frieman, Stebbins) • Structure formation (Gnedin, Hearin) • Theory leadership roles in science from experiments • Josh Frieman is DES director • Scott Dodelson is coordinating dark energy science from DES and LSST, and developing LSST software frameworks • Dan Hooper plays major role in interpreting results from direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments

  5. Dark Energy Science • Cosmic expansion is accelerating • Physics is unknown • Energy or gravity? • Experimental approach: measure the universe • Expansion history • Distribution of mass • Growth of structure • Use light from galaxies, quasars, cosmic background • Progress driven by precision

  6. Science Breakthroughs of the Year: 1998 and 2003 Precision cosmology ( WMAP,SDSS) Cosmic acceleration C. Hogan, Fermilab PAC, June 2013

  7. Precision Cosmology at Fermilab: a 40 year experimental campaign(almost like we planned it) SDSS (1990- 2010) Advent of precision cosmology Imaging and spectroscopy Many firsts (ISW, BAO, SNe…) DES (2013-2018) Extends reach of wide imaging to the Hubble length for the first time DESI (2018-20) Deeper, wider spectroscopy adds precision LSST (2020-2030) Deeper, wider, longer imaging; close to physical limits C. Hogan, Fermilab PAC, June 2013

  8. Fermilab Dark Energy Program Dark Energy Survey (2013-2018) Will soon extend ultra wide, precision imaging to Hubble distance for the first time; factor ~5 improvement in Dark Energy precision Dark Energy Survey Instrument (“DESI”) (~2018-2020) Obtain ~107 spectra to z>1, still better Dark Energy precision Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (~2020-2030) wider, faster, deeper imaging; total data ~100 times DES

  9. Dark Energy Survey Next big step in cosmic surveys Wide, deep (z>1), precise DE Camera project led by Fermilab Survey starts in 2013, runs 5 years DECam under construction at Fermilab 6

  10. Blanco Telescope at CTIO: critical instrument for discovery, and now study, of cosmic acceleration

  11. DES operations C. Hogan, Fermilab PAC, June 2013 Moving towards start of the survey this fall Unprecedented demands on CTIO and NCSA New plan for data management system Operational readiness reviews complete Fermilab active on all fronts Installation, testing, science verification, survey operations, data management, analysis and science support FNAL scientists transitioning effort to new tasks

  12. Dark Energy Spectroscopy • “Rocky III” panel convened by DOE to recommend a path forward • Recommended a spectroscopic survey • Deeper than SDSS: back to z>1 • Volume for statistics, depth for expansion history • Economical way to achieve Stage IV Dark Energy FOM • DOE project: Mid-Scale Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (now, DESI) DESI is Fermilab’s next Dark Energy initiative

  13. Why Spectroscopy Benefits of high resolution spectra Redshifts: precise mapping in 3D, velocity structure, correlations Character of sources Absorption lines: line-of-sight gas Some DE science impacts are clear (e.g. BAO) Already BAO with BOSS shows evidence of start to acceleration Others are more subtle (e.g. modified gravity) Some are not yet dreamt of Like SDSS but deeper Proven impact of SDSS comprehensive survey Spectra synergize with photometry Sample selection is important

  14. Basic Architecture of DESI Positioner technology still TBD Affects all aspects of system

  15. Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) Managed and led by LBNL; CD-0 approved Fermilab technical contributions: corrector, CCD packaging Design choices under review CD-1 review late in CY2013 Key choice: positioner technology “Merger” of previous BigBOSS and DESpec teams underway Collaboration taking shape Collaboration meeting in July Imaging survey needed for target selection (possibly including extended shallow survey by DECam)

  16. Planning status of DESI DOE has notified NSF that the KPNO Mayall 4-m is the preferred site for their Mid-Scale Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (MS-DESI). DOE and NSF will form a MS-DESI Joint Oversight Group (JOG). The MS-DESI JOG will negotiate how DOE and NSF might jointly execute MS-DESI at the Mayall. DOE will proceed to a Critical Decision 1 (CD-1) review by the end of this calendar year. If CD-1 is successful, MS-DESI will remain in Design & Development phase, DOE/NSF will review and revise their agreement(s), and the project will head towards a CD-2 in 2014. MS-DESI enters construction phase after: (a) DOE and NSF agree on a formal MOU; (b) Major Item of Equipment (MIE) new-start appears in a future budget request; and (c) successful DOE CD-2 and CD-3a (allows long-lead item procurement) reviews.

  17. LSST: like DES but more so 3x bigger field 3x bigger aperture (~9x survey speed) 6x number of pixels 3x larger share of telescope 2x survey duration 4x main survey area (LSST includes DES survey area) 4x frame rate Time domain: ~1000-frame movie over 10 years >100x as much data ~10x improvement in Dark Energy precision ~10x as many scientists ~10x the budget Nearby mountaintop Starts ~9years later C. Hogan, Fermilab PAC, June 2013

  18. Fermilab in LSST DOE camera project Led by SLAC; Fermilab participates Fermilab technical role: still undetermined, likely small NSF project: everything else Led by AURA/LSSTC; Fermilab may build parts of data management system: “develop use cases, requirements, and prototypes”; also not a large technical role LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration FNAL scientists active in collaboration; activity coordinated by Scott Dodelson FNAL leading Software Working Group; hosting workshop today Fermilab proposes to build science analysis framework DES is a pathfinder Individual frames comparably deep, but ~9x slower overall survey speed Real data like LSST will be flowing this year; impacts many LSST systems Fermilab scientists experienced in calibration, operations, etc Interest at Fermilab is high Typically 15 or 20 people at monthly LSST meetings But DES dominates time and attention right now Fermilab asset: the team of experienced survey scientists

  19. Dark Energy strategy: summary Dark Energy Science Support (operations, computing, software, consulting, interaction) for DES collaboration Ongoing development and integration of DM and analysis software DES workshops, visitors program will evolve into LSST role Project and science leadership DESI Fermilabparticipates in shaping and building DESI Interaction with DES: target selection, joint analysis Construction starts in ~2015, survey starts >2018 Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Fermilab modest technical roles in camera and data management Fermilabscientists active in LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration Fermilab scientists plan to contribute to execution, as in DES Construction starts in ~2015, survey starts ~2022

  20. WIMP Dark Matter Detection Basic principle: detect collisions of Galactic Weakly Interacting Dark Matter particles with nuclei Basic challenge: rare events require exquisite control of experimental backgrounds Masses and detailed interactions of particles are unknown Advances require large detector masses with zero background Detection, confirmation, study require multiple targets and technologies Pursue multiple technologies now, downselectlater Detectors now have sensitivity to make a discovery Hints of detections! Fermilab is the lead lab on four experiments, using different technologies and optimized for different kinds of WIMPs

  21. WIMP Dark Matter at Fermilab SuperCDMS: Cryogenic Ge detectors have demonstrated background rejection and have excellent sensitivity to low-mass WIMPs G1: 10 kg, Soudan G2: 100 kg, SNOLAB G3: 1500 kg, ?? COUPP: Bubble chambers promise best spin-dependent WIMP discovery potential; allows option of various target nuclei G1: 60kg, SNOLAB G2: 500 kg, SNOLAB G3: ??, ?? Darkside: Liquid argon has best intrinsic background rejection and may be the right path towards high-mass WIMP discovery (competes with Xenon) G1: 50 kg (Gran Sasso) G2: 1000 kg, Gran Sasso G3: 10000 kg, ? DAMIC: thick CCDs have exceptional sensitivity at low threshold, low mass Prototype in operation at SNOLab; ~100g system under development Generation 2 experiments reach the middle of the theoretical range expected for “standard WIMPs”

  22. WIMP Dark Matter strategy DOE and NSF to select experiments later this year for construction FNAL experiments are contenders Fermilab plans to stay with WIMPS at least to the G3 scale Generic Detector R&D may enable new technologies: e.g. DAMIC, low-threshold directional detectors

  23. Highest Energy Cosmic Rays – Pierre Auger World’s leading experiment on the highest energy particles, fully operational since 2008 Fermilab is the lead lab in a large international consortium Energy spectrum Seeing the GZK cutoff or learning about sources? Anisotropy Do the highest energy cosmic rays point towards matter concentrations? Can we learn about the acceleration mechanism? Composition Learning about sources, or something new in hadronic cross sections at the highest energies? Comparison with LHC: Auger center of mass collision energies up to ~100 TeV

  24. Pierre Auger Observatory • Observatory: installed over a 3000 km2 site in Argentina – data taking started in 2004 • 24 fluorescence telescopes; • 1600 surface Cherenkov detectors; • Enhancements: 3 high elevation fluorescence telescopes, 60 infill detectors, • muon counter array. • Collaboration & Partnership: Large international collaboration of 19 institutions, 463 people. Fermilab hosts the Project Office. • . 24

  25. Pierre Auger Observatory: Fermilab Plans June 2011: DOE Fermilab institutional review asks for a plan to phase out Fermilab involvement in Auger December 2011: Director’s review commended achievements and continued value Recommends continued support for next 2-3 years, then review of DOE participation August 2012: Letter from Fermilab Director to Auger principals Requests plan by June 1 2013, for transfer of lab responsibilities by end of 2015 Planning for transition now underway among Auger institutions No current plans for Fermilabto hire additional staff in this area Fermilab will shed management responsibility

  26. Quantum Geometry Laboratory experiments address new fundamental physics far beyond the TeV scale FermilabHolometer will probe fidelity of space-time with Planck sensitivity Dual, correlated 40-meter Michelson interferometers now in commissioning, first science results expected next year Future experiments may explore new interactions of axion-like particles, dark sector photons, or other BSM effects

  27. FermilabHolometer • Science: Probe Planck scale limits on fidelity of space-time and origin of locality • Holographic information content normalized by black hole entropy • Explores new position degrees of freedom in emergent space-time • Exotic transverse position noise predicted to grow with propagation distance • Needs large, 2D, high frequency apparatus • Basic experimental setup: • Two neighboring 40m Michelson interferometers measure • correlated beamsplitter position jitter at MHz frequency • Sensitivity limited by photon shot noise • Goal: rms <10-22 Hz-1/2 • (Planck spectral density of transverse position noise) • Collaboration: • 20 scientists/students from 5 institutions • Funding: DOE, NASA, NSF, • Aaron Chou DOE Early Career Award (2.5M) NOT quantum foam! 27

  28. Not a test of the holographic principle!

  29. Holometer status and plans North end mirror Input mirror • Status: • 5-arm vacuum system complete • ~100W power-recycled interferometers operational • LIGO-based digital control system operational • DAQ, ~ 40MHz sampling, cross-correlation, FFT system operational • RF isolation demonstrated in ~10 hour run • Near -term plan: • Commission and operate two interferometers in nested configuration • Optimize control system for power recycling, install high quality optics • Begin to probe space-time behavior in a never-before-tested regime • Future: • Goal is sub-Planck position noise spectral density • If non-conventional noise detected, test consistency with the noise model • -- Check predicted spectral features • -- Use back-to-back configuration to null the signal • -- Check predicted scaling with interferometer length

  30. Quantum Geometry strategy • Holometer experiment active for next 2 or 3 years • If signal suggests presence of quantum-geometrical fluctuations, follow up with longer arms, better null configurations, and other improvements • If no fluctuations are detected at sub-Planckian level, apply laser technology to search for axion-like particles, dark-sector photons, or other physics beyond the standard model • Experimental configurations now being explored

  31. “Snowmass” (CSS 2013) Fermilab participating in community process Fermilab scientists are active in working groups Fermilab supports current HEP program Current projects scientifically active for this decade Others already planned well into the next decade Will participate in new DM and DE experiments Look ahead to new long-term initiatives Explore new opportunities at the boundaries Quantum geometry, laboratory dark energy, axiondetection Proposed Chicago-led CMB project: Large polarization survey Will study neutrino properties, inflation ANL likely lead lab SPT 3G detector collaboration being explored in FNAL MKIDs lab New detector R&D: MKIDs, SiPM, Directional DM etc

  32. Fermilab in CSS 2013 process Fermilabconvenors of Cosmic Frontier working groups Dan Bauer: CF1, WIMP Dark Matter Direct Detection, working group A, Status and Science Case (see Dan Hooper: CF4, Dark Matter Complementarity Scott Dodelson: CF5, Dark Energy and CMB Aaron Chou and Craig Hogan: CF6, subgroup C, Exploring the Basic Nature of Space and Time Active Participants J. Estrada: co-organizer of Argonne Instrumentation Frontier workshop M. Soares-Santos: convenor of Snowmass Young SLAC Cosmic Frontier meeting participation and active WG participation by: Crisler, Frieman, Hsu, Kent, Lippincott, Nord, Para, Penning, Sonnenschein, Wester About half of the Cosmic Frontier staff

  33. Cosmic Frontier Snowmass issues Dark Matter Manage competition between experiments and technologies Exploit synergies with accelerator program and indirect detection These are also internal issues at Fermilab Dark Energy and CMB Main DE project directions are set Focus now on DES, DESI, LSST and their science Considerable Fermilab effort now and in the future No clear successor to LSST Will DOE partner on a major CMB project for neutrino and inflation physics? Cosmic Particles Gamma rays, CTA: not directly a Fermilab issue New Technologies Cosmic Instrumentation frontier: new detectors Health of field Gain support of the rest of the community for the cosmic frontier

  34. Cosmic Frontier Experiment Strategy C. Hogan, Fermilab PAC, June 2013 Dark Energy Expect x5 improvement in our understanding of dark energy with DES by 2018 Follow up with spectroscopic survey (DESI) in 2018-2020 Significant roles in dark energy science with LSST in 2020-2030 Dark Matter Expect x3 better sensitivity from current experiments by 2015 Strong G2 experiments will provide x10 additional sensitivity to WIMPs Intend to play major role in G3 experiments to probe down to neutrino floor Highest Energy Particles Improved understanding of origins/composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays by 2015 Not planning for major role beyond 2015 Quantum Geometry Unique experiment to look for Planck-scale physics Follow on will depend on what is seen with Holometer by 2015 New Initiatives Next generation CMB experiment New axion-like particle searches using laser cavities and Tevatron magnets Detector R&D leading to new experiments (mKIDs, SiPMs, Directional DM….)

  35. Big-Picture Plan • Plan A: We discover something new! WIMP events, varying dark energy, holographic noise,… Then discovery sets priorities • Plan B: We don’t Choices set by potential for discovery, overall science impact Eventually, will move on from WIMP and Dark Energy programs Start laying the groundwork now