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Civil Wars: Sierra Leone & EL Salvador. By: Shannon Burke Samantha Wood and Klaus Luther. Define Development…. Development is viewed as the process of increasing national incomes and improving the quality of life of its citizens

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Civil wars sierra leone el salvador

Civil Wars:Sierra Leone & EL Salvador


Shannon Burke

Samantha Wood and

Klaus Luther

Define development
Define Development…

Development is viewed as the process of increasing national incomes and improving the quality of life of its citizens

(Sierra Leone is not a developed country according to this definition.)

Background on sierra leone
Background onSierra Leone

  • Became independent April 27, 1961

  • Military coup overthrew civilian government in 1967… turned into civilian government 1 year later.

  • Declared republic April 19, 1971

After the coup in 1971
After the Coup in 1971

  • Sika Stevens (prime minister of Sierra Leone) asked Guinea to have arms in the country for 2 years

1996 oh my
1996… Oh My…

  • Military coup ousted military leader & president

  • Multiparty election took place, people elected Ahman Tejan Kabbah

  • First democratically elected leader

This is getting old
This is getting old!

  • Violent military coup ousted Kabbah’s government 1997

  • Leader of the Coup: Liet. Col. Johnny Paul Koroma

  • Became Head of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council

Koroma not so great
Koroma…not so great…

  • Began reign of terror

  • Destroyed economy & enemies

  • Commonwealth of Nations demanded the reinstatement of Kabbah

  • ECOMOG, Nigerian peace-keeping force, intervened.

Kabbah is back
Kabbah is back!

  • March 10, 1998- after 10 months in exile, Kabbah resumed power over Sierra Leone

  • Ousted junta & other rebels continued to wage attacks

Rebel s attack
Rebel’s Attack!

  • Attacks included: torture, rape, brutal maiming of thousands of civilians (including children) amputation by machete signature of the rebels

  • WHY??

Blood diamonds
Blood Diamonds

  • Rebels were supported by Charles Taylor

  • He just wanted to gain control of Sierra Leone’s rich diamond mines

January 1999
January 1999

  • Rebels demanded Foday Sankoh regain control of Freetown

  • Agreed to share power when pressured by US & Nigeria

  • Sankoh got control of diamond mines

After the conflict
After the Conflict

  • Declared officially over in 2000

  • Estimated 50,000 people killed in the decade-long civil war

  • 17,000 UN peace-keepers were installed

After the conflict continued
After the Conflict (continued)

  • President Kabbah reelected 2002 w/ 70% of the vote

  • 70,000 soldiers disarmed

  • UN war crimes tribunal opened

  • UN believes Sierra Leone is the “least livable country in the world”


  • Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), formed 1960s created demonstrations to protest bad elections in 1972 &1977.

  • Most Salvadorians were peasants (Campesinos)

Government actions of late 1970s
Government Actions of late 1970s

  • Government declared state of siege to combat protests.

  • Suspended Constitutional rights.

  • Formed parliamentary ‘Death Squads’

Coup d tat in 1979
Coup d’état in 1979

  • The Junta Revolucionaria de Gobierno (JRG) killed president Carlos Humberto Romero

  • They were inspired by left-wing politics and protecting the image of El Salvador

Death squad murders
Death Squad Murders

  • Archbishop Oscar Romero was murdered by death squad after asking the US to stop giving military aid

  • 40 mourners killed

Us involvement in war
US Involvement in War

  • President Ronald Reagan elected 1980

  • Viewed El Salvador as a place for communism to spread

  • Provided aid to Salvadorian Government

Increasing unrest
Increasing Unrest

  • Major Roberto D'Aubuisson arrested May 7, 1980

  • Farm raided & found evidence linking him to the Archbishop’s murder

  • UN Investigation found that he ordered the Archbishop killed.

Fmln comes into power
FMLN Comes into Power

  • FMLN: Leftist organizations & guerilla groups.

  • Lost battles, but gained strongholds.

  • FMLN not militarily successful, but turned the eye of the world to civil rights issues.

International community comes to action ends the war
International Community Comes to Action & Ends the War

  • 1989: murder of 6 Jesuit priests shocked international community

  • US Congress started investigating & found atrocities & lies.

  • 1992 signed Peace Accords, ending the war.

Works cited
Works Cited

GlobalSecurity. “El Salvador Civil War.” Global Security. 27 Apr. 2005. 3 June 2009 <>.

PBS. “Enemies of War: El Salvador Civil War.” Enemies of War. PBS. 3 June 2009 <>.

“Conflicto En Sierra Leone Desata Crisis Humanitaria.” BBC Mundo. 5 Oct. 2000. 3 June 2009 <>.

“Sierra Leone: History, Geography, Government, and Culture.” 2007. 3 June 2009 <>.