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Lactogenesis and Composition of Breast Milk. I. General Information A. Embryologically: belong to integument B. Functionally: part of reproductive system C. Modified apocrine sweat glands. II. Anatomy

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lactogenesis and composition of breast milk
Lactogenesis

and

Composition of Breast Milk

slide2

I. General Information

A. Embryologically: belong to integument

B. Functionally: part of reproductive system

C. Modified apocrine sweat glands

slide3

II. Anatomy

  • Position and Attachment
  • 1. Lateral aspect of pectoral region
  • 2. Located between ribs 3 and 6/7
  • 3. Extend form sternum to axilla
  • 4. Surrounded by superficial fascia
  • 5. Rest on deep fascia
slide5

Structure, continued …

Secretory epithelium

a. Changes with hormonal signals

b. Onset of menstruation

c. Pregnancy (glands begin to enlarge at 2nd month)

slide6

Structure, continued …

  • Vessels & Nerves
    • 1. Arteries: derived from thoracic branches
    • a. Axillary arteries
    • b. Internal mammary arteries c. Intercostal arteries
slide7

Vessels & Nerves, continued …

        • Veins

a. form a ring around the base of the nipple (“circulus venosus”)

    • b. External mammary v to axillary v
    • c. Internal mammary v to subclavian v
slide8

Breast Anatomy, con’t…

  • Nerve Innervation: derived from:
  • a. anterior & lateral cutaneous nerves of thorax
  • b. spinal segments T3 – T6
slide9

Lymphatics

Subclavian nodes

Axillary nodes

Parasternal nodes

Lateral pectoral nodes

lactation four stages mammogenesis lactogenesis galactokinesis galactopoiesis
Lactation: four stages

Mammogenesis

Lactogenesis

Galactokinesis

Galactopoiesis

slide11

Mammogenesis

  • From 24th week of pregnancy
  • Growth of ducts and lobuloalveolar systems
  • Hormonal influences-

estrogen, adrenal steroids, progesterone, estrogen, prolactin, adrenal steroids and growth hormone

slide12

Lactogenesis I

  • Begins during pregnancy
  • Alveoli distend with colostrum

Lactogenesis II

  • Initiation of significant milk secretion at or just after parturition- colostrum
  • Mature milk secretion begins 30-40 hours postpartum and averages 1-2 ml/g of breast tissue /day
slide13

Lactogenesis III

  • Milk supply is more firmly established- autocrine control system begins
  • More the milk is removed from the breasts, more the breast will produce milk
slide14

Galactokinesis

  • Ejection of Milk
  • Suction exerted by the baby during suckling
  • Contractile mechanism
  • Draught sensation
slide16

Galactopoiesis

  • Maintenance Of Lactation
  • Prolactin
  • Sucking
slide17

Composition of Breast Milk (gms/100ml)

  • Sugar : 7
  • Fat : 3.5
  • Protein : 1.2
  • Minerals : 0.4
  • Water : 89
  • Calories : 67